Acetobacteraceae

Acetobacteraceae is a family of gram-negative or gram-variable coccus to rod-shaped bacteria which are found in acidic or sugary foods and beverages, as well as on plants.

Achromobacter denitrificans

Achromobacter species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that inhabit soil and water. They are not normal flora of humans.

Achromobacter insolitus

Achromobacter species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that inhabit soil and water. They are not normal flora of humans.

Achromobacter piechaudii/spanius

Achromobacter species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that inhabit soil and water. They are not normal flora of humans.

Achromobacter spp.

Achromobacter species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that inhabit soil and water. They are not normal flora of humans.

Achromobacter xylosoxidans

Achromobacter species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that inhabit soil and water. They are not normal flora of humans.

Acidovorax spp.

Acidovorax species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that inhabit water and soil worldwide. They can be found on fruits and vegetables and some species are plant pathogens.

Acinetobacter baumannii

Acinetobacter species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria which are widely distributed in nature and the hospital environment. They are found in water and soil, on fruits and vegetables, and on the healthy human skin. Acinetobacter is able to survive in both wet and dry environments and has been found in sink traps, on floors, and in air samples. It is often isolated where there is a stagnant water source such as improperly drained drip pans, water fountains, faucets, humidifiers, sink traps.

Acinetobacter calcoaceticus

Acinetobacter species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria which are widely distributed in nature and the hospital environment. They are found in water and soil, on fruits and vegetables, and on the healthy human skin. Acinetobacter is able to survive in both wet and dry environments and has been found in sink traps, on floors, and in air samples. It is often isolated where there is a stagnant water source such as improperly drained drip pans, water fountains, faucets, humidifiers, sink traps.

Acinetobacter johnsonii

Acinetobacter species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria which are widely distributed in nature and the hospital environment. They are found in water and soil, on fruits and vegetables, and on the healthy human skin. Acinetobacter is able to survive in both wet and dry environments and has been found in sink traps, on floors, and in air samples. It is often isolated where there is a stagnant water source such as improperly drained drip pans, water fountains, faucets, humidifiers, sink traps.

Acinetobacter junii

Acinetobacter species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria which are widely distributed in nature and the hospital environment. They are found in water and soil, on fruits and vegetables, and on the healthy human skin. Acinetobacter is able to survive in both wet and dry environments and has been found in sink traps, on floors, and in air samples. It is often isolated where there is a stagnant water source such as improperly drained drip pans, water fountains, faucets, humidifiers, sink traps.

Acinetobacter lwoffii

Acinetobacter species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria which are widely distributed in nature and the hospital environment. They are found in water and soil, on fruits and vegetables, and on the healthy human skin. Acinetobacter is able to survive in both wet and dry environments and has been found in sink traps, on floors, and in air samples. It is often isolated where there is a stagnant water source such as improperly drained drip pans, water fountains, faucets, humidifiers, sink traps.

Acinetobacter radioresistens

Acinetobacter species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria which are widely distributed in nature and the hospital environment. They are found in water and soil, on fruits and vegetables, and on the healthy human skin. Acinetobacter is able to survive in both wet and dry environments and has been found in sink traps, on floors, and in air samples. It is often isolated where there is a stagnant water source such as improperly drained drip pans, water fountains, faucets, humidifiers, sink traps.

Acinetobacter schindleri

Acinetobacter species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria which are widely distributed in nature and the hospital environment. They are found in water and soil, on fruits and vegetables, and on the healthy human skin. Acinetobacter is able to survive in both wet and dry environments and has been found in sink traps, on floors, and in air samples. It is often isolated where there is a stagnant water source such as improperly drained drip pans, water fountains, faucets, humidifiers, sink traps.

Acinetobacter spp.

Acinetobacter species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria which are widely distributed in nature and the hospital environment. They are found in water and soil, on fruits and vegetables, and on the healthy human skin. Acinetobacter is able to survive in both wet and dry environments and has been found in sink traps, on floors, and in air samples. It is often isolated where there is a stagnant water source such as improperly drained drip pans, water fountains, faucets, humidifiers, sink traps.

Acinetobacter ursingii

Acinetobacter species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria which are widely distributed in nature and the hospital environment. They are found in water and soil, on fruits and vegetables, and on the healthy human skin. Acinetobacter is able to survive in both wet and dry environments and has been found in sink traps, on floors, and in air samples. It is often isolated where there is a stagnant water source such as improperly drained drip pans, water fountains, faucets, humidifiers, sink traps.

Actinobacillus equuli

Actinobacillus species are slow-growing, gram-negative, rod shaped bacteria. They are considered normal flora of the human oral cavity and of animals such as cows, sheep, and pigs.

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

Actinobacillus species are slow-growing, gram-negative, rod shaped bacteria. They are considered normal flora of the human oral cavity and of animals such as cows, sheep, and pigs.

Actinobacillus seminis

Actinobacillus species are slow-growing, gram-negative, rod shaped bacteria. They are considered normal flora of the human oral cavity and of animals such as cows, sheep, and pigs.

Actinobacillus spp.

Actinobacillus species are slow-growing, gram-negative, rod shaped bacteria. They are considered normal flora of the human oral cavity and of animals such as cows, sheep, and pigs.

Actinobacillus ureae

Actinobacillus species are slow-growing, gram-negative, rod shaped bacteria. They are considered normal flora of the human oral cavity and of animals such as cows, sheep, and pigs.

Actinobacteria

Actinobacteria are rod-shaped, sometimes branching, gram-positive bacteria that are widely distributed in terrestrial and aquatic habitats. Actinobacteria are common in compost piles and often occur in high concentrations in the air when compost is disturbed. As such they are important as causative agents of occupation-related respiratory allergies, hypersensitivity pneumonitis ("farmers lung"). The frequent presence of actinobacteria can be regarded as a sign of moisture damage in concrete buildings. Actinobacteria include such genera as Nocardia, Rhodococcus, Gordonia, Actinomadura, and Streptomyces.

Actinomyces spp.

Actinomyces species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are normal flora of the oral cavity and gastrointestinal and urogenital tracts.

Aeromicrobium spp.

Aeromicrobium species are gram-positive bacteria that can be rod or spherical in shape. They have been isolated from soil and marine environments.

Agrobacterium tumefaciens

Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that inhabits the soil. It is a plant pathogen responsible for crown gall disease.

Agrococcus terreus

Agrococcus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria that have been isolated from various environments including soil, food, and plants.

Alcaligenes faecalis

Alcaligenes species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria found in the intestinal tracts of vertebrates, decaying materials, dairy products, water, and soil.

Alcaligenes spp.

Alcaligenes species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria found in the intestinal tracts of vertebrates, decaying materials, dairy products, water, and soil.

Alkalihalobacillus hunanensis

Alkalihalobacillus species are gram-positive or gram-variable, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria. They can be found in salty and/or alkaline environments.

Alkalihalobacillus spp.

Alkalihalobacillus species are gram-positive or gram-variable, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria. They can be found in salty and/or alkaline environments.

Aneurinibacillus aneurinilyticus

Aneurinibacillus species (formerly Bacillus) are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are ubiquitous in nature. They form spores that are resistant to heat, desiccation, radiation, and disinfectants. Dissemination of spores via aerosols and dust contributes to contamination of indoor environments.

Aneurinibacillus spp.

Aneurinibacillus species (formerly Bacillus) are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are ubiquitous in nature. They form spores that are resistant to heat, desiccation, radiation, and disinfectants. Dissemination of spores via aerosols and dust contributes to contamination of indoor environments.

Arcanobacterium bernardiae

Arcanobacterium species are non-spore-forming, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria. They are normal inhabitants of the human skin and pharynx.

Arcanobacterium haemolyticum

Arcanobacterium species are non-spore-forming, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria. They are normal inhabitants of the human skin and pharynx.

Arcanobacterium pyogenes

Arcanobacterium species are non-spore-forming, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria. They are normal inhabitants of the human skin and pharynx.

Arcanobacterium spp.

Arcanobacterium species are non-spore-forming, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria. They are normal inhabitants of the human skin and pharynx.

Arcticibacter pallidicorallinus

Arcticibacter species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are members of the Sphingobacteriaceae family. Arcticibacter species have been isolated from soil.

Arthrobacter cumminsii

Arthrobacter species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are the most frequently isolated bacteria from soil samples.

Arthrobacter globiformis

Arthrobacter species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are the most frequently isolated bacteria from soil samples.

Arthrobacter spp.

Arthrobacter species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are the most frequently isolated bacteria from soil samples.

Aureimonas altamirensis

Aureimonas species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that have been isolated primarily from environmental sources.

Avibacterium spp.

Avibacterium species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that cause respiratory disease in chickens.


Bacillus amyloliquefaciens

Bacillus species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are ubiquitous in nature. They form spores that are resistant to heat, desiccation, radiation, and disinfectants. Dissemination of spores via aerosols and dust contributes to contamination of indoor environments.

Bacillus atrophaeus

Bacillus species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are ubiquitous in nature. They form spores that are resistant to heat, desiccation, radiation, and disinfectants. Dissemination of spores via aerosols and dust contributes to contamination of indoor environments.

Bacillus beijingensis

Bacillus species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are ubiquitous in nature. They form spores that are resistant to heat, desiccation, radiation, and disinfectants. Dissemination of spores via aerosols and dust contributes to contamination of indoor environments.

Bacillus cereus

Bacillus species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are ubiquitous in nature. They form spores that are resistant to heat, desiccation, radiation, and disinfectants. Dissemination of spores via aerosols and dust contributes to contamination of indoor environments.

Bacillus cereus group

Bacillus species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are ubiquitous in nature. They form spores that are resistant to heat, desiccation, radiation, and disinfectants. Dissemination of spores via aerosols and dust contributes to contamination of indoor environments.

Bacillus circulans

Bacillus species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are ubiquitous in nature. They form spores that are resistant to heat, desiccation, radiation, and disinfectants. Dissemination of spores via aerosols and dust contributes to contamination of indoor environments.

Bacillus clausii

Bacillus species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are ubiquitous in nature. They form spores that are resistant to heat, desiccation, radiation, and disinfectants. Dissemination of spores via aerosols and dust contributes to contamination of indoor environments.

Bacillus coagulans

Bacillus species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are ubiquitous in nature. They form spores that are resistant to heat, desiccation, radiation, and disinfectants. Dissemination of spores via aerosols and dust contributes to contamination of indoor environments.

Bacillus cytotoxicus

Bacillus species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are ubiquitous in nature. They form spores that are resistant to heat, desiccation, radiation, and disinfectants. Dissemination of spores via aerosols and dust contributes to contamination of indoor environments.

Bacillus endophyticus

Bacillus species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are ubiquitous in nature. They form spores that are resistant to heat, desiccation, radiation, and disinfectants. Dissemination of spores via aerosols and dust contributes to contamination of indoor environments.

Bacillus firmus

Bacillus species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are ubiquitous in nature. They form spores that are resistant to heat, desiccation, radiation, and disinfectants. Dissemination of spores via aerosols and dust contributes to contamination of indoor environments.

Bacillus flexus

Bacillus species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are ubiquitous in nature. They form spores that are resistant to heat, desiccation, radiation, and disinfectants. Dissemination of spores via aerosols and dust contributes to contamination of indoor environments.

Bacillus gibsonii

Bacillus species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are ubiquitous in nature. They form spores that are resistant to heat, desiccation, radiation, and disinfectants. Dissemination of spores via aerosols and dust contributes to contamination of indoor environments.

Bacillus halosaccharovorans

Bacillus species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are ubiquitous in nature. They form spores that are resistant to heat, desiccation, radiation, and disinfectants. Dissemination of spores via aerosols and dust contributes to contamination of indoor environments.

Bacillus halotolerans/mojavensis/subtilis/tequilensis

Bacillus species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are ubiquitous in nature. They form spores that are resistant to heat, desiccation, radiation, and disinfectants. Dissemination of spores via aerosols and dust contributes to contamination of indoor environments.

Bacillus licheniformis

Bacillus species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are ubiquitous in nature. They form spores that are resistant to heat, desiccation, radiation, and disinfectants. Dissemination of spores via aerosols and dust contributes to contamination of indoor environments.

Bacillus megaterium

Bacillus species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are ubiquitous in nature. They form spores that are resistant to heat, desiccation, radiation, and disinfectants. Dissemination of spores via aerosols and dust contributes to contamination of indoor environments.

Bacillus mycoides

Bacillus species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are ubiquitous in nature. They form spores that are resistant to heat, desiccation, radiation, and disinfectants. Dissemination of spores via aerosols and dust contributes to contamination of indoor environments.

Bacillus oleronius

Bacillus species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are ubiquitous in nature. They form spores that are resistant to heat, desiccation, radiation, and disinfectants. Dissemination of spores via aerosols and dust contributes to contamination of indoor environments.

Bacillus pumilus

Bacillus species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are ubiquitous in nature. They form spores that are resistant to heat, desiccation, radiation, and disinfectants. Dissemination of spores via aerosols and dust contributes to contamination of indoor environments.

Bacillus simplex

Bacillus species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are ubiquitous in nature. They form spores that are resistant to heat, desiccation, radiation, and disinfectants. Dissemination of spores via aerosols and dust contributes to contamination of indoor environments.

Bacillus sporothermodurans

Bacillus species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are ubiquitous in nature. They form spores that are resistant to heat, desiccation, radiation, and disinfectants. Dissemination of spores via aerosols and dust contributes to contamination of indoor environments.

Bacillus spp.

Bacillus species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are ubiquitous in nature. They form spores that are resistant to heat, desiccation, radiation, and disinfectants. Dissemination of spores via aerosols and dust contributes to contamination of indoor environments.

For more information, visit our Bacillus Species page.

Bacillus subtilis

Bacillus species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are ubiquitous in nature. They form spores that are resistant to heat, desiccation, radiation, and disinfectants. Dissemination of spores via aerosols and dust contributes to contamination of indoor environments.

Bacillus subtilis/amyloliquefaciens/vallismortis

Bacillus species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are ubiquitous in nature. They form spores that are resistant to heat, desiccation, radiation, and disinfectants. Dissemination of spores via aerosols and dust contributes to contamination of indoor environments.

Bacillus weihenstephanensis

Bacillus species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are ubiquitous in nature. They form spores that are resistant to heat, desiccation, radiation, and disinfectants. Dissemination of spores via aerosols and dust contributes to contamination of indoor environments.

Bergeyella spp.

Bergeyella species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that inhabit the oral and nasal cavities of dogs and cats.

Bhargavaea beijingensis

Bhargavaea species are gram-positive, non-spore forming, rod-shaped bacteria that are members of the family Planococcaceae. Bhargavaea species have been isolated from coastal sands and deep-sea sediments.

Bifidobacterium spp.

Bifidobacterium species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in the intestinal tracts of mammals.

Blastomonas spp.

Blastomonas species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from water.

Brachybacterium spp.

Brachybacterium species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria which can found in the environment, foods, and animals.

Brevibacillus borstelensis

Brevibacillus species (formerly Bacillus) are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are ubiquitous in nature. They form spores that are resistant to heat, desiccation, radiation, and disinfectants. Dissemination of spores via aerosols and dust contributes to contamination of indoor environments.

Brevibacillus invocatus

Brevibacillus species (formerly Bacillus) are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are ubiquitous in nature. They form spores that are resistant to heat, desiccation, radiation, and disinfectants. Dissemination of spores via aerosols and dust contributes to contamination of indoor environments.

Brevibacillus spp.

Brevibacillus species (formerly Bacillus) are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are ubiquitous in nature. They form spores that are resistant to heat, desiccation, radiation, and disinfectants. Dissemination of spores via aerosols and dust contributes to contamination of indoor environments.

Brevibacterium casei

Brevibacterium species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are part of normal human flora. They can also be isolated from soil, water, and various foods, particularly dairy products.

Brevibacterium luteolum

Brevibacterium species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are part of normal human flora. They can also be isolated from soil, water, and various foods, particularly dairy products.

Brevibacterium spp.

Brevibacterium species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are part of normal human flora. They can also be isolated from soil, water, and various foods, particularly dairy products.

Brevundimonas diminuta

Brevundimonas species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that were formerly classified within the genus Pseudomonas. They inhabit environmental sources such as water, soil, and plant surfaces, including fruits and vegetables.

Brevundimonas spp.

Brevundimonas species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that were formerly classified within the genus Pseudomonas. They inhabit environmental sources such as water, soil, and plant surfaces, including fruits and vegetables.

Brevundimonas subvibrioides

Brevundimonas species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that were formerly classified within the genus Pseudomonas. They inhabit environmental sources such as water, soil, and plant surfaces, including fruits and vegetables.

Brevundimonas vesicularis

Brevundimonas species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that were formerly classified within the genus Pseudomonas. They inhabit environmental sources such as water, soil, and plant surfaces, including fruits and vegetables.

Brochothrix spp.

Brochothrix species are gram-positive, rod-shaped shaped bacteria that are associated with meat and meat product spoilage.

Budvicia aquatica

Budvicia aquatica is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium found in fresh water sources including brooks, rivers, and well water.

Burkholderia ambifaria

Burkholderia species (B. cepacia complex) are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that belong to a complex of 18 distinct species that are difficult to differentiate from one another. They are found in water, soil, rhizospheres, and in and on plants, including fruits and vegetables. They have a worldwide distribution and are widely recognized as phytopathogens. Because of their ability to survive in aqueous environments and their innate antimicrobial resistance, these organisms have become particularly problematic in healthcare settings..

Burkholderia anthina

Burkholderia species (B. cepacia complex) are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that belong to a complex of 18 distinct species that are difficult to differentiate from one another. They are found in water, soil, rhizospheres, and in and on plants, including fruits and vegetables. They have a worldwide distribution and are widely recognized as phytopathogens. Because of their ability to survive in aqueous environments and their innate antimicrobial resistance, these organisms have become particularly problematic in healthcare settings..

Burkholderia cenocepacia

Burkholderia species (B. cepacia complex) are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that belong to a complex of 18 distinct species that are difficult to differentiate from one another. They are found in water, soil, rhizospheres, and in and on plants, including fruits and vegetables. They have a worldwide distribution and are widely recognized as phytopathogens. Because of their ability to survive in aqueous environments and their innate antimicrobial resistance, these organisms have become particularly problematic in healthcare settings..

Burkholderia cepacia

Burkholderia species (B. cepacia complex) are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that belong to a complex of 18 distinct species that are difficult to differentiate from one another. They are found in water, soil, rhizospheres, and in and on plants, including fruits and vegetables. They have a worldwide distribution and are widely recognized as phytopathogens. Because of their ability to survive in aqueous environments and their innate antimicrobial resistance, these organisms have become particularly problematic in healthcare settings..

Burkholderia dolosa

Burkholderia species (B. cepacia complex) are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that belong to a complex of 18 distinct species that are difficult to differentiate from one another. They are found in water, soil, rhizospheres, and in and on plants, including fruits and vegetables. They have a worldwide distribution and are widely recognized as phytopathogens. Because of their ability to survive in aqueous environments and their innate antimicrobial resistance, these organisms have become particularly problematic in healthcare settings..

Burkholderia fungorum

Burkholderia species (B. cepacia complex) are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that belong to a complex of 18 distinct species that are difficult to differentiate from one another. They are found in water, soil, rhizospheres, and in and on plants, including fruits and vegetables. They have a worldwide distribution and are widely recognized as phytopathogens. Because of their ability to survive in aqueous environments and their innate antimicrobial resistance, these organisms have become particularly problematic in healthcare settings..

Burkholderia gladioli

Burkholderia species (B. cepacia complex) are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that belong to a complex of 18 distinct species that are difficult to differentiate from one another. They are found in water, soil, rhizospheres, and in and on plants, including fruits and vegetables. They have a worldwide distribution and are widely recognized as phytopathogens. Because of their ability to survive in aqueous environments and their innate antimicrobial resistance, these organisms have become particularly problematic in healthcare settings..

Burkholderia multivorans

Burkholderia species (B. cepacia complex) are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that belong to a complex of 18 distinct species that are difficult to differentiate from one another. They are found in water, soil, rhizospheres, and in and on plants, including fruits and vegetables. They have a worldwide distribution and are widely recognized as phytopathogens. Because of their ability to survive in aqueous environments and their innate antimicrobial resistance, these organisms have become particularly problematic in healthcare settings..

Burkholderia pyrrocinia

Burkholderia species (B. cepacia complex) are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that belong to a complex of 18 distinct species that are difficult to differentiate from one another. They are found in water, soil, rhizospheres, and in and on plants, including fruits and vegetables. They have a worldwide distribution and are widely recognized as phytopathogens. Because of their ability to survive in aqueous environments and their innate antimicrobial resistance, these organisms have become particularly problematic in healthcare settings..

Burkholderia spp.

Burkholderia species (B. cepacia complex) are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that belong to a complex of 18 distinct species that are difficult to differentiate from one another. They are found in water, soil, rhizospheres, and in and on plants, including fruits and vegetables. They have a worldwide distribution and are widely recognized as phytopathogens. Because of their ability to survive in aqueous environments and their innate antimicrobial resistance, these organisms have become particularly problematic in healthcare settings..

Burkholderia stabilis

Burkholderia species (B. cepacia complex) are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that belong to a complex of 18 distinct species that are difficult to differentiate from one another. They are found in water, soil, rhizospheres, and in and on plants, including fruits and vegetables. They have a worldwide distribution and are widely recognized as phytopathogens. Because of their ability to survive in aqueous environments and their innate antimicrobial resistance, these organisms have become particularly problematic in healthcare settings..

Burkholderia vietnamiensis

Burkholderia species (B. cepacia complex) are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that belong to a complex of 18 distinct species that are difficult to differentiate from one another. They are found in water, soil, rhizospheres, and in and on plants, including fruits and vegetables. They have a worldwide distribution and are widely recognized as phytopathogens. Because of their ability to survive in aqueous environments and their innate antimicrobial resistance, these organisms have become particularly problematic in healthcare settings..


Carnobacterium viridans

Carnobacterium species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that can be found in seawater, dairy, fish and meat products.

Cellulomonas spp.

Cellulomonas species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that inhabit soil and sludge.

Cellulomonas uda

Cellulomonas species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that inhabit soil and sludge.

Cellulosimicrobium spp.

Cellulosimicrobium species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that have been isolated from soil, grass cuttings, decaying plant materials and sewage facilities.

Chromobacterium violaceum

Chromobacterium violaceum is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is a common inhabitant of soil and water in tropical and subtropical areas.

Chryseobacterium indologenes

Chryseobacterium species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria typically found in soil and plants.

Chryseobacterium spp.

Chryseobacterium species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria typically found in soil and plants.

Citricoccus spp.

Citricoccus species are gram-positive, spherical shaped bacteria found in water, soil, and on human skin

Citrobacter amalonaticus

Citrobacter species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. They are widely distributed on plants and in soil, water, and the intestines of humans and animals.

Citrobacter amalonaticus/farmeri

Citrobacter species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. They are widely distributed on plants and in soil, water, and the intestines of humans and animals.

Citrobacter braakii

Citrobacter species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. They are widely distributed on plants and in soil, water, and the intestines of humans and animals.

Citrobacter farmeri

Citrobacter species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. They are widely distributed on plants and in soil, water, and the intestines of humans and animals.

Citrobacter freundii

Citrobacter species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. They are widely distributed on plants and in soil, water, and the intestines of humans and animals.

Citrobacter koseri

Citrobacter species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. They are widely distributed on plants and in soil, water, and the intestines of humans and animals.

Citrobacter spp.

Citrobacter species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. They are widely distributed on plants and in soil, water, and the intestines of humans and animals.

Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp.

Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are gram-positive, spherical bacteria. The major habitats of CoNS are the skin and mucous membranes of mammals and birds. In humans, S. epidermidis is the most frequently isolated staphylococcal species colonizing the body surface.

Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus spp.

Coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS) are gram-positive, spherical bacteria which are considered action organisms under USP 797 guidelines. S. aureus is the most common CPS; additional species include S. lugdunensis and S. schleiferi.

Cohnella spp.

Cohnella species are gram-positive, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria which have been isolated from water, plants, and soil.

Comamonas aquatica

Comamonas species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria. They are ubiquitous in the environment and have been isolated from soil, water, sludge, and hospital settings.

Comamonas spp.

Comamonas species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria. They are ubiquitous in the environment and have been isolated from soil, water, sludge, and hospital settings.

Comamonas testosteroni

Comamonas species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria. They are ubiquitous in the environment and have been isolated from soil, water, sludge, and hospital settings.

Corynebacterium accolens

Corynebacterium species are gram-positive, irregular, rod-shaped bacteria. Many species are part of the normal flora of the skin and mucous membranes in humans and mammals.

Corynebacterium afermentans

Corynebacterium species are gram-positive, irregular, rod-shaped bacteria. Many species are part of the normal flora of the skin and mucous membranes in humans and mammals.

Corynebacterium amycolatum

Corynebacterium species are gram-positive, irregular, rod-shaped bacteria. Many species are part of the normal flora of the skin and mucous membranes in humans and mammals.

Corynebacterium aurimucosum

Corynebacterium species are gram-positive, irregular, rod-shaped bacteria. Many species are part of the normal flora of the skin and mucous membranes in humans and mammals.

Corynebacterium glucuronolyticum

Corynebacterium species are gram-positive, irregular, rod-shaped bacteria. Many species are part of the normal flora of the skin and mucous membranes in humans and mammals.

Corynebacterium jeikeium

Corynebacterium species are gram-positive, irregular, rod-shaped bacteria. Many species are part of the normal flora of the skin and mucous membranes in humans and mammals.

Corynebacterium kutscheri

Corynebacterium species are gram-positive, irregular, rod-shaped bacteria. Many species are part of the normal flora of the skin and mucous membranes in humans and mammals.

Corynebacterium lipophiloflavum

Corynebacterium species are gram-positive, irregular, rod-shaped bacteria. Many species are part of the normal flora of the skin and mucous membranes in humans and mammals.

Corynebacterium macginleyi

Corynebacterium species are gram-positive, irregular, rod-shaped bacteria. Many species are part of the normal flora of the skin and mucous membranes in humans and mammals.

Corynebacterium mucifaciens

Corynebacterium species are gram-positive, irregular, rod-shaped bacteria. Many species are part of the normal flora of the skin and mucous membranes in humans and mammals.

Corynebacterium mucifaciens/ureicelerivorans

Corynebacterium species are gram-positive, irregular, rod-shaped bacteria. Many species are part of the normal flora of the skin and mucous membranes in humans and mammals.

Corynebacterium propinquum

Corynebacterium species are gram-positive, irregular, rod-shaped bacteria. Many species are part of the normal flora of the skin and mucous membranes in humans and mammals.

Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum

Corynebacterium species are gram-positive, irregular, rod-shaped bacteria. Many species are part of the normal flora of the skin and mucous membranes in humans and mammals.

Corynebacterium renale

Corynebacterium species are gram-positive, irregular, rod-shaped bacteria. Many species are part of the normal flora of the skin and mucous membranes in humans and mammals.

Corynebacterium striatum

Corynebacterium species are gram-positive, irregular, rod-shaped bacteria. Many species are part of the normal flora of the skin and mucous membranes in humans and mammals.

Corynebacterium tuberculostearicum

Corynebacterium species are gram-positive, irregular, rod-shaped bacteria. Many species are part of the normal flora of the skin and mucous membranes in humans and mammals.

Corynebacterium ulcerans

Corynebacterium species are gram-positive, irregular, rod-shaped bacteria. Many species are part of the normal flora of the skin and mucous membranes in humans and mammals.

Corynebacterium urealyticum

Corynebacterium species are gram-positive, irregular, rod-shaped bacteria. Many species are part of the normal flora of the skin and mucous membranes in humans and mammals.

Coryneform bacillus

Coryneform bacilli are gram-positive, irregular, rod-shaped bacteria. Many species are part of the normal flora of the skin and mucous membranes in humans and mammals. Other coryneform bacilli have been found in the inanimate environment, e.g. dairy products, plants, soil, and activated sludge. Coryneforms are a large group and include genera such as Corynebacterium, Dermabacter, Brevibacterium, Microbacterium, and Cellulomonas.

For more information, visit our Coryneform Bacilli page.

Coryneform bacillus Type 1

Coryneform bacilli are gram-positive, irregular, rod-shaped bacteria. Many species are part of the normal flora of the skin and mucous membranes in humans and mammals. Other coryneform bacilli have been found in the inanimate environment, e.g. dairy products, plants, soil, and activated sludge. Coryneforms are a large group and include genera such as Corynebacterium, Dermabacter, Brevibacterium, Microbacterium, and Cellulomonas.

Coryneform bacillus Type 2

Coryneform bacilli are gram-positive, irregular, rod-shaped bacteria. Many species are part of the normal flora of the skin and mucous membranes in humans and mammals. Other coryneform bacilli have been found in the inanimate environment, e.g. dairy products, plants, soil, and activated sludge. Coryneforms are a large group and include genera such as Corynebacterium, Dermabacter, Brevibacterium, Microbacterium, and Cellulomonas.

Cronobacter spp.

Cronobacter species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. These species have been found in dry foods, such as infant formula, powdered milk, and starches as well as in wastewater.

Cupriavidus pauculus

Cupriavidus species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria found in water, soil, the rhizosphere, and in and on plants including fruits and vegetables. They have a worldwide distribution and are widely recognized as phytopathogens. Because of their ability to survive in aqueous environments, these organisms have become particularly problematic in health care settings.

Cupriavidus spp.

Cupriavidus species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria found in water, soil, the rhizosphere, and in and on plants including fruits and vegetables. They have a worldwide distribution and are widely recognized as phytopathogens. Because of their ability to survive in aqueous environments, these organisms have become particularly problematic in health care settings.

Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens

Curtobacterium species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria which are widely distributed plant pathogens found in the soil.

Curtobacterium spp.

Curtobacterium species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria which are widely distributed plant pathogens found in the soil.

Cutibacterium spp.

Cutibacterium species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are part of the normal coryneform flora of the human skin.


Deinococcus spp.

Deinococcus species are large, gram-positive, spherical bacteria that are highly resistant to radiation and heat.

Delftia acidovorans

Delftia acidovorans is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium with a world-wide distribution. It can be found in water, soil, the rhizosphere, and in and on plants including fruits and vegetables.

Delftia spp.

Delftia species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria with a world-wide distribution. They can be found in water, soil, the rhizosphere, and in and on plants including fruits and vegetables.

Dermabacter hominis

Dermabacter hominis is a gram-positive, spherical to rod-shaped bacterium that is part of the normal flora of the skin and mucous membranes of human and other mammals.

Dermacoccus nishinomiyaensis

Dermacoccus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria commonly found on the skin of humans and mammals.

Dermacoccus spp.

Dermacoccus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria commonly found on the skin of humans and mammals.

Dietzia cinnamea

Dietzia species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are members of a group of bacteria known as actinomycetes. These bacteria are widely distributed in the environment and are associated with the decomposition of plant material.

Dietzia spp.

Dietzia species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are members of a group of bacteria known as actinomycetes. These bacteria are widely distributed in the environment and are associated with the decomposition of plant material.

Dolosigranulum spp.

Dolosigranulum species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria that have been isolated from humans.

Domibacillus indicus

Domibacillus species are gram-positive, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria that have been found in marine sediments. They are related to Bacillus species.


Edwardsiella spp.

Edwardsiella species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are primarily fish pathogens.

Elizabethkingia meningoseptica

Elizabethkingia meningoseptica (formerly Chryseobacterium meningoseptica) is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that can be isolated from soil, plants, foodstuffs, and water sources, including those in hospitals.

Empedobacter brevis

Empedobacter brevis is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium found in soil, plants, foodstuffs, and water sources, including those in hospitals.

Enteractinococcus spp.

Enteractinococcus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria that have been found in water and animal feces.

Enterobacter aerogenes

Enterobacter species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. These organisms inhabit the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals, as well as a wide variety of environmental niches, including water, sewage, soil, food, and hospital environments.

Enterobacter asburiae

Enterobacter species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. These organisms inhabit the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals, as well as a wide variety of environmental niches, including water, sewage, soil, food, and hospital environments.

Enterobacter cancerogenus

Enterobacter species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. These organisms inhabit the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals, as well as a wide variety of environmental niches, including water, sewage, soil, food, and hospital environments.

Enterobacter cloacae

Enterobacter species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. These organisms inhabit the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals, as well as a wide variety of environmental niches, including water, sewage, soil, food, and hospital environments.

Enterobacter cowanii

Enterobacter species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. These organisms inhabit the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals, as well as a wide variety of environmental niches, including water, sewage, soil, food, and hospital environments.

Enterobacter gergoviae

Enterobacter species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. These organisms inhabit the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals, as well as a wide variety of environmental niches, including water, sewage, soil, food, and hospital environments.

Enterobacter hormaechei

Enterobacter species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. These organisms inhabit the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals, as well as a wide variety of environmental niches, including water, sewage, soil, food, and hospital environments.

Enterobacter pulveris

Enterobacter species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. These organisms inhabit the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals, as well as a wide variety of environmental niches, including water, sewage, soil, food, and hospital environments.

Enterobacter spp.

Enterobacter species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. These organisms inhabit the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals, as well as a wide variety of environmental niches, including water, sewage, soil, food, and hospital environments.

Enterococcus avium

Enterococcus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria which are found in soil, food, water, and as normal flora of the gastro- and genitourinary tracts of animals, birds, and humans.

Enterococcus casseliflavus

Enterococcus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria which are found in soil, food, water, and as normal flora of the gastro- and genitourinary tracts of animals, birds, and humans.

Enterococcus cecorum

Enterococcus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria which are found in soil, food, water, and as normal flora of the gastro- and genitourinary tracts of animals, birds, and humans.

Enterococcus columbae

Enterococcus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria which are found in soil, food, water, and as normal flora of the gastro- and genitourinary tracts of animals, birds, and humans.

Enterococcus durans

Enterococcus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria which are found in soil, food, water, and as normal flora of the gastro- and genitourinary tracts of animals, birds, and humans.

Enterococcus faecalis

Enterococcus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria which are found in soil, food, water, and as normal flora of the gastro- and genitourinary tracts of animals, birds, and humans.

Enterococcus faecium

Enterococcus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria which are found in soil, food, water, and as normal flora of the gastro- and genitourinary tracts of animals, birds, and humans.

Enterococcus gallinarum

Enterococcus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria which are found in soil, food, water, and as normal flora of the gastro- and genitourinary tracts of animals, birds, and humans.

Enterococcus hirae

Enterococcus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria which are found in soil, food, water, and as normal flora of the gastro- and genitourinary tracts of animals, birds, and humans.

Enterococcus raffinosus

Enterococcus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria which are found in soil, food, water, and as normal flora of the gastro- and genitourinary tracts of animals, birds, and humans.

Enterococcus saccharolyticus

Enterococcus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria which are found in soil, food, water, and as normal flora of the gastro- and genitourinary tracts of animals, birds, and humans.

Enterococcus spp.

Enterococcus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria which are found in soil, food, water, and as normal flora of the gastro- and genitourinary tracts of animals, birds, and humans.

Erwinia rhapontici

Erwinia species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are part of the Enterobacteriaceae family. They are frequently pathogenic to plants.

Escherichia coli

Escherichia coli is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. It is considered a normal inhabitant of the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals.

Escherichia hermannii

E. hermannii is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. It is considered a normal inhabitant of the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals and has been found in water, soil, and food.

Exiguobacterium acetylicum

Exiguobacterium species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria. These organisms have been isolated from extreme environments, such as glacial ice and hot springs, and from other diverse sources such as food processing plants and soil.

Exiguobacterium indicum

Exiguobacterium species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria. These organisms have been isolated from extreme environments, such as glacial ice and hot springs, and from other diverse sources such as food processing plants and soil.

Exiguobacterium spp.

Exiguobacterium species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria. These organisms have been isolated from extreme environments, such as glacial ice and hot springs, and from other diverse sources such as food processing plants and soil.


Ferdinandcohnia spp.

Ferdinandcohnia species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are found in a variety of environments, such as soil, rice fields, human stool, air in caves and hypersaline lakes.

Fictibacillus spp.

Fictibacillus species are gram-positive, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria that are related to Bacillus. They have been found in industrial waste, metal ores, freshwater, marine sediments and soil.

Flavobacterium spp.

Flavobacterium species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are found in soil and water. They are primarily pathogens of fish.


Gemella spp.

Gemella species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria that are part of the normal human flora of the oral cavity and upper respiratory tract.

Geobacillus spp.

Geobacillus species (formerly Bacillus) are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that have been found in a variety of environments including hot-springs, soil, and food manufacturing plants.. They form spores that are resistant to heat, desiccation, radiation, and disinfectants. Dissemination of spores via aerosols and dust contributes to contamination of indoor environments.

Geobacillus thermodenitrificans

Geobacillus species (formerly Bacillus) are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that have been found in a variety of environments including hot-springs, soil, and food manufacturing plants.. They form spores that are resistant to heat, desiccation, radiation, and disinfectants. Dissemination of spores via aerosols and dust contributes to contamination of indoor environments.

Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius

Geobacillus species (formerly Bacillus) are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that have been found in a variety of environments including hot-springs, soil, and food manufacturing plants.. They form spores that are resistant to heat, desiccation, radiation, and disinfectants. Dissemination of spores via aerosols and dust contributes to contamination of indoor environments.

Georgenia spp.

Georgenia species are gram-positive, filamentous, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from various soils.

Gordonia spp.

Gordonia species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria typically found in soil and aquatic habitats.

Gracilibacillus spp.

Gracilibacillus species are gram-positive, rod-shaped, spore-forming bacteria typically found in salty environments.


Hafnia alvei

Hafnia alvei is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. It inhabits the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals, as well as a wide variety of environmental niches, including water, sewage, soil, food, and hospital environments.

Herbaspirillum huttiense

Herbaspirillum species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that inhabit the soil around plant roots. They are also found in water, including ground and well water.


Janibacter spp.

Janibacter species are gram-positive, non-spore-forming, rod or spherical-shpated bacteria isolated from water, insects, fruit, and marine sediments.

Jeotgalicoccus halotolerans

Jeotgalicoccus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria that are widespread in the environment.


Kineococcus spp.

Kineococcus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria isolated from soil.

Kitasatospora spp.

Kitasatospora species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria which belong to the actinomycete family. They are typically isolated from soil.

Klebsiella oxytoca

Klebsiella species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. They are widely distributed in the environment and are part of the normal flora of the intestinal tracts of humans and animals.

Klebsiella pneumoniae

Klebsiella species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. They are widely distributed in the environment and are part of the normal flora of the intestinal tracts of humans and animals.

Klebsiella spp.

Klebsiella species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. They are widely distributed in the environment and are part of the normal flora of the intestinal tracts of humans and animals.

Kluyvera ascorbata

Kluyvera species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that have been recovered from a variety of foods, water, and animals (snails and slugs).

Kluyvera cryocrescens

Kluyvera species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that have been recovered from a variety of foods, water, and animals (snails and slugs).

Kluyvera intermedia

Kluyvera species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that have been recovered from a variety of foods, water, and animals (snails and slugs).

Kluyvera spp.

Kluyvera species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that have been recovered from a variety of foods, water, and animals (snails and slugs).

Kocuria kristinae

Kocuria species (formerly Micrococcus) are gram-positive spherical bacteria. They are widespread in nature and commonly found, along with coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp., as normal flora on the skin of humans and mammals.

Kocuria palustris

Kocuria species (formerly Micrococcus) are gram-positive spherical bacteria. They are widespread in nature and commonly found, along with coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp., as normal flora on the skin of humans and mammals.

Kocuria rhizophila

Kocuria species (formerly Micrococcus) are gram-positive spherical bacteria. They are widespread in nature and commonly found, along with coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp., as normal flora on the skin of humans and mammals.

Kocuria rosea

Kocuria species (formerly Micrococcus) are gram-positive spherical bacteria. They are widespread in nature and commonly found, along with coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp., as normal flora on the skin of humans and mammals.

Kocuria spp.

Kocuria species (formerly Micrococcus) are gram-positive spherical bacteria. They are widespread in nature and commonly found, along with coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp., as normal flora on the skin of humans and mammals.

Kocuria varians

Kocuria species (formerly Micrococcus) are gram-positive spherical bacteria. They are widespread in nature and commonly found, along with coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp., as normal flora on the skin of humans and mammals.

Kosakonia spp.

Kosakonia species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria related to Enterobacter species that have been isolated from plants.

Kroppenstedtia spp.

Kroppenstedtia species are gram-positive, filamentous bacteria isolated from environmental sources, including soil, buildings, humidifiers, and fresh and salt water and as well as from foods.

Kytococcus sedentarius

Kytococcus species (formerly Micrococcus) are gram-positive spherical bacteria. They are widespread in nature and commonly found, along with coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp., as normal flora on the skin of humans and mammals.


Lactobacillus acidophilus

Lactobacillus species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are common flora of the skin and digestive tracts of humans and animals.

Lactobacillus brevis

Lactobacillus species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are common flora of the skin and digestive tracts of humans and animals.

Lactobacillus buchneri

Lactobacillus species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are common flora of the skin and digestive tracts of humans and animals.

Lactobacillus crispatus

Lactobacillus species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are common flora of the skin and digestive tracts of humans and animals.

Lactobacillus curvatus

Lactobacillus species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are common flora of the skin and digestive tracts of humans and animals.

Lactobacillus delbrueckii

Lactobacillus species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are common flora of the skin and digestive tracts of humans and animals.

Lactobacillus fermentum

Lactobacillus species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are common flora of the skin and digestive tracts of humans and animals.

Lactobacillus helveticus

Lactobacillus species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are common flora of the skin and digestive tracts of humans and animals.

Lactobacillus iners

Lactobacillus species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are common flora of the skin and digestive tracts of humans and animals.

Lactobacillus ingluviei

Lactobacillus species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are common flora of the skin and digestive tracts of humans and animals.

Lactobacillus jensenii

Lactobacillus species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are common flora of the skin and digestive tracts of humans and animals.

Lactobacillus johnsonii

Lactobacillus species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are common flora of the skin and digestive tracts of humans and animals.

Lactobacillus paracasei

Lactobacillus species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are common flora of the skin and digestive tracts of humans and animals.

Lactobacillus pentosus

Lactobacillus species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are common flora of the skin and digestive tracts of humans and animals.

Lactobacillus rhamnosus

Lactobacillus species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are common flora of the skin and digestive tracts of humans and animals.

Lactobacillus sakei

Lactobacillus species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are common flora of the skin and digestive tracts of humans and animals.

Lactobacillus spp.

Lactobacillus species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are common flora of the skin and digestive tracts of humans and animals.

Lactococcus garvieae

Lactococcus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria that do not normally colonize humans. They are used extensively in the dairy industry to generate fermented products such as yogurt, cheese, and sour cream.

Lactococcus lactis

Lactococcus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria that do not normally colonize humans. They are used extensively in the dairy industry to generate fermented products such as yogurt, cheese, and sour cream.

Lactococcus raffinolactis

Lactococcus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria that do not normally colonize humans. They are used extensively in the dairy industry to generate fermented products such as yogurt, cheese, and sour cream.

Lactococcus spp.

Lactococcus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria that do not normally colonize humans. They are used extensively in the dairy industry to generate fermented products such as yogurt, cheese, and sour cream.

Leclercia adecarboxylata

Leclercia adecarboxylata is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that has been recovered from a variety of foods, water, and animals (snails and slugs).

Leifsonia aquatica

Leifsonia species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that have been recovered from fresh water.

Leifsonia spp.

Leifsonia species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that have been recovered from fresh water.

Lelliottia amnigena

Lelliottia amnigena is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that was previously a member of the genus, Enterobacter. Enterobacter species inhabit the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals, as well as a wide variety of environmental niches, including water, sewage, soil, food, and hospital environments.

Lelliottia spp.

Lelliottia species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from decaying vegetation and water.

Lentibacillus spp.

Lentibacillus species are gram-variable, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria primarily found in halophilic environments.

Leuconostoc spp.

Leuconostoc species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria. They are associated with fermentation in foodstuffs such as sourdough, sauerkraut, and wine.

Luteimonas spp.

Luteimonas species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria typically found in marine environments and soil.

Lysinibacillus fusiformis

Lysinibacillus species (formerly Bacillus) are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that can sometimes stain gram-negative. They are ubiquitous in nature and form spores that are resistant to heat, desiccation, radiation, and disinfectants. Dissemination of spores via aerosols and dust contributes to contamination of indoor environments.

Lysobacter spp.

Lysobacter species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that have been isolated from soil and water.


Macrococcus spp.

Macrococcus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria related to Staphylococcus. They are typically found on animal skin in food, such as meat and milk.

Massilia haematophila

Massilia species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that colonize the roots of many types of plants.

Massilia timonae

Massilia species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that colonize the roots of many types of plants.

Mesobacillus spp.

Mesobacillus species are gram-positive or gram-variable, rod-shaped, spore-forming bacteria found in a wide variety of environments including water, soil, plants, and animals.

Mesorhizobium spp.

Mesorhizobium species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil where they form symbiotic root nodules with plants.

Methylobacterium aquaticum

Methylobacterium species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that occur mostly on vegetation but may also be found in the hospital environment. Tap water has been implicated as a possible agent of transmission in this environment.

Methylobacterium mesophilicum

Methylobacterium species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that occur mostly on vegetation but may also be found in the hospital environment. Tap water has been implicated as a possible agent of transmission in this environment.

Methylobacterium radiotolerans

Methylobacterium species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that occur mostly on vegetation but may also be found in the hospital environment. Tap water has been implicated as a possible agent of transmission in this environment.

Methylobacterium rhodesianum

Methylobacterium species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that occur mostly on vegetation but may also be found in the hospital environment. Tap water has been implicated as a possible agent of transmission in this environment.

Methylobacterium spp.

Methylobacterium species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that occur mostly on vegetation but may also be found in the hospital environment. Tap water has been implicated as a possible agent of transmission in this environment.

Methylorubrum spp.

Methylorubrum species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are common in soil and on surfaces of leaves and other plant parts.

Microbacterium liquefaciens

Microbacterium species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are found in the environment (soil, sludge) and in hospitals.

Microbacterium paraoxydans

Microbacterium species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are found in the environment (soil, sludge) and in hospitals.

Microbacterium spp.

Microbacterium species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are found in the environment (soil, sludge) and in hospitals.

Microbacterium testaceum

Microbacterium species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are found in the environment (soil, sludge) and in hospitals.

Micrococcus luteus

Micrococcus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria which are widespread in nature and commonly found, along with coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp., as normal flora on the skin of humans and mammals. They are carried on the skin of most (~96%) people, with M. luteus being the predominant species. Animal and dairy products are considered secondary sources.

Micrococcus lylae

Micrococcus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria which are widespread in nature and commonly found, along with coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp., as normal flora on the skin of humans and mammals. They are carried on the skin of most (~96%) people, with M. luteus being the predominant species. Animal and dairy products are considered secondary sources.

Micrococcus/Kocuria spp.

Micrococcus and Kocuria species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria which are widespread in nature and commonly found, along with coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp., as normal flora on the skin of humans and mammals. They are carried on the skin of most (~96%) people, with M. luteus being the predominant species. Animal and dairy products are considered secondary sources.

For more information, visit our Micrococcus & Kocuria Species page.

Mixta spp.

Mixta species are gram-negative, rod/spherical-shaped bacteria that are found in association with plants, humans, and food products.

Moraxella atlantae

Moraxella species are gram-negative, coccobacillary-shaped bacteria that are normal flora of the mucous membranes covering the nose, throat, and respiratory tract of humans. They may also colonize the skin.

Moraxella bovis

Moraxella species are gram-negative, coccobacillary-shaped bacteria that are normal flora of the mucous membranes covering the nose, throat, and respiratory tract of humans. They may also colonize the skin.

Moraxella catarrhalis

Moraxella species are gram-negative, coccobacillary-shaped bacteria that are normal flora of the mucous membranes covering the nose, throat, and respiratory tract of humans. They may also colonize the skin.

Moraxella caviae

Moraxella species are gram-negative, coccobacillary-shaped bacteria that are normal flora of the mucous membranes covering the nose, throat, and respiratory tract of humans. They may also colonize the skin.

Moraxella lacunata

Moraxella species are gram-negative, coccobacillary-shaped bacteria that are normal flora of the mucous membranes covering the nose, throat, and respiratory tract of humans. They may also colonize the skin.

Moraxella nonliquefaciens

Moraxella species are gram-negative, coccobacillary-shaped bacteria that are normal flora of the mucous membranes covering the nose, throat, and respiratory tract of humans. They may also colonize the skin.

Moraxella osloensis

Moraxella species are gram-negative, coccobacillary-shaped bacteria that are normal flora of the mucous membranes covering the nose, throat, and respiratory tract of humans. They may also colonize the skin.

Moraxella spp.

Moraxella species are gram-negative, coccobacillary-shaped bacteria that are normal flora of the mucous membranes covering the nose, throat, and respiratory tract of humans. They may also colonize the skin.

Morganella morganii

Morganella morganii is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. This organism inhabits the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals, as well as a wide variety of environmental niches, including water, sewage, soil, food, and hospital environments.

Mycetocola spp.

Mycetocola species are gram-positive, non-spore-forming, irregular, rod-shaped bacteria commonly found in mushrooms.

Mycobacterium avium

Mycobacterium species are gram-positive/gram-variable, rod-shaped bacteria. Environmental strains are commonly isolated from soil and water and can survive chlorination in municipal water systems.

Mycobacterium chelonae

Mycobacterium species are gram-positive/gram-variable, rod-shaped bacteria. Environmental strains are commonly isolated from soil and water and can survive chlorination in municipal water systems.

Mycobacterium fortuitum

Mycobacterium species are gram-positive/gram-variable, rod-shaped bacteria. Environmental strains are commonly isolated from soil and water and can survive chlorination in municipal water systems.

Mycobacterium gordonae

Mycobacterium species are gram-positive/gram-variable, rod-shaped bacteria. Environmental strains are commonly isolated from soil and water and can survive chlorination in municipal water systems.

Mycobacterium immunogenum

Mycobacterium species are gram-positive/gram-variable, rod-shaped bacteria. Environmental strains are commonly isolated from soil and water and can survive chlorination in municipal water systems.

Mycobacterium mucogenicum

Mycobacterium species are gram-positive/gram-variable, rod-shaped bacteria. Environmental strains are commonly isolated from soil and water and can survive chlorination in municipal water systems.

Mycobacterium nonchromogenicum

Mycobacterium species are gram-positive/gram-variable, rod-shaped bacteria. Environmental strains are commonly isolated from soil and water and can survive chlorination in municipal water systems.

Mycobacterium spp.

Mycobacterium species are gram-positive/gram-variable, rod-shaped bacteria. Environmental strains are commonly isolated from soil and water and can survive chlorination in municipal water systems.

Myroides odoratimimus

Myroides species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that inhabit soil and water.

Myroides spp.

Myroides species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that inhabit soil and water.


Neisseria weaveri

Neisseria weaveri is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is part of the oral flora of dogs.

Nissabacter spp.

Nissabacter species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are part of the Enterobacteriaceae family. They can be found in the intestinal tracts of humans and other animals as well as in water and soil.

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Nocardia spp.

Nocardia species are gram-positive, branching, rod-shaped bacteria. They are found worldwide in soil that is rich in organic matter.

Nocardiopsis spp.

Nocardiopsis species are gram-positive, filamentous bacteria commonly found in soil.

Noviherbaspirillum spp.

Noviherbaspirillum species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from air and oil-contaminated soil samples.


Oceanobacillus caeni

Oceanobacillus species are gram-positive, rod-shaped, spore-forming bacteria that are related to Bacillus species. They have been found on the skin of rainbow trout and on oceanic sediment.

Oceanobacillus profundus

Oceanobacillus species are gram-positive, rod-shaped, spore-forming bacteria that are related to Bacillus species. They have been found on the skin of rainbow trout and on oceanic sediment.

Ochrobactrum anthropi

Ochrobactrum anthropi is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium. It has been isolated from various environmental sources such as polluted soil, water, plants, nematodes, insects, animals, and humans.

Ochrobactrum spp.

Ochrobactrum species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are found in a wide variety of environments including water, soil, plants, and animals.

Oerskovia turbata

Oerskovia turbata is a gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in the soil.

Okibacterium spp.

Okibacterium species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria related to coryneform bacilli. They are environmental organisms associated with plants.

Oligella spp.

Oligella species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that inhabit the human urinary tract.

Oligella ureolytica

Oligella species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that inhabit the human urinary tract.

Oligella urethralis

Oligella species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that inhabit the human urinary tract.

Ornithinibacillus contaminans

Ornithinibacillus species are gram-positive, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria that are members of the family Bacillaceae, which includes Bacillus species. They are widely distributed in the environment.

Oxalobacteraceae

Oxalobacteraceae is a family of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria. Various members of the family are found in soil, water, and plant habitats. Some species are plant pathogens.


Paenibacillus durus

Paenibacillus species (formerly Bacillus) are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are ubiquitous in nature. They form spores that are resistant to heat, desiccation, radiation, and disinfectants. Dissemination of spores via aerosols and dust contributes to contamination of indoor environments.

Paenibacillus lautus

Paenibacillus species (formerly Bacillus) are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are ubiquitous in nature. They form spores that are resistant to heat, desiccation, radiation, and disinfectants. Dissemination of spores via aerosols and dust contributes to contamination of indoor environments.

Paenibacillus macerans

Paenibacillus species (formerly Bacillus) are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are ubiquitous in nature. They form spores that are resistant to heat, desiccation, radiation, and disinfectants. Dissemination of spores via aerosols and dust contributes to contamination of indoor environments.

Paenibacillus pabuli

Paenibacillus species (formerly Bacillus) are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are ubiquitous in nature. They form spores that are resistant to heat, desiccation, radiation, and disinfectants. Dissemination of spores via aerosols and dust contributes to contamination of indoor environments.

Paenibacillus provencensis

Paenibacillus species (formerly Bacillus) are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are ubiquitous in nature. They form spores that are resistant to heat, desiccation, radiation, and disinfectants. Dissemination of spores via aerosols and dust contributes to contamination of indoor environments.

Paenibacillus spp.

Paenibacillus species (formerly Bacillus) are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are ubiquitous in nature. They form spores that are resistant to heat, desiccation, radiation, and disinfectants. Dissemination of spores via aerosols and dust contributes to contamination of indoor environments.

Paenibacillus validus

Paenibacillus species (formerly Bacillus) are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are ubiquitous in nature. They form spores that are resistant to heat, desiccation, radiation, and disinfectants. Dissemination of spores via aerosols and dust contributes to contamination of indoor environments.

Pandoraea spp.

Pandoraea species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that inhabit soil, fresh and salt water.

Pantoea agglomerans

Pantoea species (formerly Enterobacter) are gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. These organisms inhabit the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals, as well as a wide variety of environmental niches, including water, sewage, soil, food, and hospital environments.

Pantoea dispersa

Pantoea species (formerly Enterobacter) are gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. These organisms inhabit the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals, as well as a wide variety of environmental niches, including water, sewage, soil, food, and hospital environments.

Pantoea spp.

Pantoea species (formerly Enterobacter) are gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. These organisms inhabit the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals, as well as a wide variety of environmental niches, including water, sewage, soil, food, and hospital environments.

Paraburkholderia spp.

Paraburkholderia species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from soil, water, and plants.

Paracoccus spp.

Paracoccus species are gram-negative, spherical to rod-shaped bacteria found naturally in soil and brines.

Paracoccus yeei

Paracoccus species are gram-negative, spherical to rod-shaped bacteria found naturally in soil and brines.

Pasteurella aerogenes

Pasturella species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that colonize the nasal and oral cavities of animals and humans.

Pasteurella canis

Pasturella species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that colonize the nasal and oral cavities of animals and humans.

Pasteurella multocida

Pasturella species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that colonize the nasal and oral cavities of animals and humans.

Pasteurella pneumotropica

Pasturella species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that colonize the nasal and oral cavities of animals and humans.

Pasteurella spp.

Pasturella species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that colonize the nasal and oral cavities of animals and humans.

Patulibacter spp.

Patulibacter species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil environments.

Pectobacterium spp.

Pectobacterium species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are pathogenic to plants.

Pedobacter spp.

Pedobacter species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that have been primarily isolated from soil.

Pigmentiphaga spp.

Pigmentiphaga species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria. They have been found on human skin, floral nectar, tree sap, stream sediment, arboreal frogs, and soil.

Planococcaceae

Planococcaceae is a family of gram-variable, spore-forming and non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria that are related to Bacillus. Various species have been found in the environment and as normal flora of humans and animals.

Planococcus spp.

Planococcus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria that have been isolated from marine environments.

Planomicrobium spp.

Planomicrobium species are gram-positive, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria that are found in sea water, marine clams, shrimps, and prawns.

Plantibacter flavus

Plantibacter species are gram-positive, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria which have been isolated from plants.

Pluralibacter spp.

Pluralibacter species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that have been isolated from soil, water, sewage, cosmetic products, and packed foods.

Pontibacter spp.

Pontibacter species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria which occupy a vast array of habitats including soil, marine, and freshwater environments.

Propionibacterium acnes

Propionibacterium species are gram-positive, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria that are normal flora of the human skin and gastrointestinal tract.

Propionibacterium granulosum

Propionibacterium species are gram-positive, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria that are normal flora of the human skin and gastrointestinal tract.

Propionibacterium spp.

Propionibacterium species are gram-positive, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria that are normal flora of the human skin and gastrointestinal tract.

Proteus mirabilis

Proteus species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. These organisms inhabit the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals, as well as a wide variety of environmental niches, including water, sewage, soil, food, and hospital environments.

Proteus spp.

Proteus species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. These organisms inhabit the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals, as well as a wide variety of environmental niches, including water, sewage, soil, food, and hospital environments.

Proteus vulgaris

Proteus species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. These organisms inhabit the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals, as well as a wide variety of environmental niches, including water, sewage, soil, food, and hospital environments.

Providencia alcalifaciens

Providencia species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. These organisms inhabit the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals, as well as a wide variety of environmental niches, including water, sewage, soil, food, and hospital environments.

Providencia rettgeri

Providencia species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. These organisms inhabit the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals, as well as a wide variety of environmental niches, including water, sewage, soil, food, and hospital environments.

Providencia rustigianii

Providencia species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. These organisms inhabit the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals, as well as a wide variety of environmental niches, including water, sewage, soil, food, and hospital environments.

Providencia spp.

Providencia species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. These organisms inhabit the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals, as well as a wide variety of environmental niches, including water, sewage, soil, food, and hospital environments.

Providencia stuartii

Providencia species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. These organisms inhabit the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals, as well as a wide variety of environmental niches, including water, sewage, soil, food, and hospital environments.

Pseudescherichia spp.

Pseudescherichia species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria related to E. coli.

Pseudescherichia vulneris

Pseudescherichia species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria related to E. coli.

Pseudocitrobacter spp.

Pseudocitrobacter species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. These organisms have been isolated from human fecal samples.

Pseudoclavibacter spp.

Pseudoclavibacter species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from soil, activated sludge, and fish fillet samples.

Pseudogracilibacillus spp.

Pseudogracilibacillus species are gram-positive, rod-shaped, spore-forming bacteria. They have been isolated from plant roots, soil, and marine biofilm.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that can be readily isolated from moist environments, such as sink drains, fresh vegetables, river water, and even antiseptic solutions. It survives well in domestic environments (e.g., swimming pools, water slides, hot tubs, whirlpools, contact lens solution, sponges), and hospital environments (e.g., sinks, showers, respiratory equipment).

Pseudomonas alcaligenes

Pseudomonas species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria which are ubiquitous in soil and water. They prefer moist environments but can tolerate a variety of physical conditions. They are able to proliferate at cool temperatures and are responsible for the spoilage of dairy products. Some species are plant pathogens.

Pseudomonas chlororaphis

Pseudomonas species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria which are ubiquitous in soil and water. They prefer moist environments but can tolerate a variety of physical conditions. They are able to proliferate at cool temperatures and are responsible for the spoilage of dairy products. Some species are plant pathogens.

Pseudomonas citronellolis

Pseudomonas species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria which are ubiquitous in soil and water. They prefer moist environments but can tolerate a variety of physical conditions. They are able to proliferate at cool temperatures and are responsible for the spoilage of dairy products. Some species are plant pathogens.

Pseudomonas fluorescens

Pseudomonas species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria which are ubiquitous in soil and water. They prefer moist environments but can tolerate a variety of physical conditions. They are able to proliferate at cool temperatures and are responsible for the spoilage of dairy products. Some species are plant pathogens.

Pseudomonas luteola

Pseudomonas species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria which are ubiquitous in soil and water. They prefer moist environments but can tolerate a variety of physical conditions. They are able to proliferate at cool temperatures and are responsible for the spoilage of dairy products. Some species are plant pathogens.

Pseudomonas nitroreducens

Pseudomonas species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria which are ubiquitous in soil and water. They prefer moist environments but can tolerate a variety of physical conditions. They are able to proliferate at cool temperatures and are responsible for the spoilage of dairy products. Some species are plant pathogens.

Pseudomonas oleovorans

Pseudomonas oleovorans is a gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium found in soil. It has also been isolated from oil-water emulsions used as lubricants and cooling agents in metalworking.

Pseudomonas oryzihabitans

Pseudomonas oryzihabitans is a gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium often recovered in moist hospital environments (e.g., respiratory therapy equipment).

Pseudomonas putida

Pseudomonas species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria which are ubiquitous in soil and water. They prefer moist environments but can tolerate a variety of physical conditions. They are able to proliferate at cool temperatures and are responsible for the spoilage of dairy products. Some species are plant pathogens.

Pseudomonas rhizosphaerae

Pseudomonas species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria which are ubiquitous in soil and water. They prefer moist environments but can tolerate a variety of physical conditions. They are able to proliferate at cool temperatures and are responsible for the spoilage of dairy products. Some species are plant pathogens.

Pseudomonas spp.

Pseudomonas species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria which are ubiquitous in soil and water. They prefer moist environments but can tolerate a variety of physical conditions. They are able to proliferate at cool temperatures and are responsible for the spoilage of dairy products. Some species are plant pathogens.

Pseudomonas stutzeri

Pseudomonas species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria which are ubiquitous in soil and water. They prefer moist environments but can tolerate a variety of physical conditions. They are able to proliferate at cool temperatures and are responsible for the spoilage of dairy products. Some species are plant pathogens.

Pseudomonas viridiflava

Pseudomonas viridiflava is a florescent, gram-negative bacterium that is pathogenic to plants. It can also be found in soil.

Pseudonocardiaceae

Pseudonocardiaceae is a family of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria which inhabit soil.

Pseudoxanthomonas spp.

Pseudoxanthomonas species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that have been isolated from soil, water, and human urine.

Psychrobacillus lasiicapitis

Psychrobacillus lasiicapitis is a gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium related to Bacillus species. It is of environmental origin and can form spores that are resistant to heat, desiccation, radiation, and disinfectants.

Psychrobacter faecalis

Psychrobacter species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria found in saline ecosystems, chilled meat and fish, and the upper respiratory tract of various animals.

Psychrobacter phenylpyruvicus

Psychrobacter species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria found in saline ecosystems, chilled meat and fish, and the upper respiratory tract of various animals.

Psychrobacter spp.

Psychrobacter species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria found in saline ecosystems, chilled meat and fish, and the upper respiratory tract of various animals.

Pueribacillus spp.

Pueribacillus species are gram-positive, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria of environmental origin that are related to Bacillus species.


Quasibacillus thermotolerans

Quasibacillus thermotolerans is a gram-positive, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium related to Bacillus species. The first known strain was isolated from a landfill.


Rahnella aquatilis

Rahnella species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria which have been found in fresh water, soil, beetles, and snails.

Rahnella spp.

Rahnella species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria which have been found in fresh water, soil, beetles, and snails.

Ralstonia insidiosa

Ralstonia species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria found in water, soil, the rhizosphere, and in and on plants including fruits and vegetables. They have a worldwide distribution and are widely recognized as phytopathogens. Because of their ability to survive in aqueous environments, these organisms have become particularly problematic in hospitals and health care settings.

Ralstonia mannitolilytica

Ralstonia species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria found in water, soil, the rhizosphere, and in and on plants including fruits and vegetables. They have a worldwide distribution and are widely recognized as phytopathogens. Because of their ability to survive in aqueous environments, these organisms have become particularly problematic in hospitals and health care settings.

Ralstonia pickettii

Ralstonia species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria found in water, soil, the rhizosphere, and in and on plants including fruits and vegetables. They have a worldwide distribution and are widely recognized as phytopathogens. Because of their ability to survive in aqueous environments, these organisms have become particularly problematic in hospitals and health care settings.

Ralstonia spp.

Ralstonia species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria found in water, soil, the rhizosphere, and in and on plants including fruits and vegetables. They have a worldwide distribution and are widely recognized as phytopathogens. Because of their ability to survive in aqueous environments, these organisms have become particularly problematic in hospitals and health care settings.

Raoultella ornithinolytica

Raoultella species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria found in aquatic environments.

Raoultella spp.

Raoultella species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria found in aquatic environments.

Rathayibacter spp.

Rathayibacter species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that inhabit soil and cause disease in plants.

Rhizobium radiobacter

Rhizobium radiobacter (formerly Agrobacterium tumefaciens) is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium of leguminous plants. There are several species of Rhizobium and all are plant pathogens occurring worldwide.

Rhodobacter spp.

Rhodobacter species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed in fresh water.

Rhodococcus equi

Rhodococcus species are gram-positive, spherical to rod-shaped bacteria. They can be isolated from soil and farm animals, as well as fresh and salt waters.

Rhodococcus erythropolis

Rhodococcus species are gram-positive, spherical to rod-shaped bacteria. They can be isolated from soil and farm animals, as well as fresh and salt waters.

Rhodococcus spp.

Rhodococcus species are gram-positive, spherical to rod-shaped bacteria. They can be isolated from soil and farm animals, as well as fresh and salt waters.

Roseomonas aerofrigidensis

Roseomonas species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil and water. R. mucosa can be found as part of the skin microflora of humans.

Roseomonas mucosa

Roseomonas species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil and water. R. mucosa can be found as part of the skin microflora of humans.

Rossellomorea haikooensis

Rossellomorea species are gram-positive to gram-variable, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria that are related to Bacillus. They have been found mainly in marine environments.

Rothia dentocariosa

Rothia species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria which inhabit the oral cavity of humans.

Rothia mucilaginosa

Rothia species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria which inhabit the oral cavity of humans.

Rouxiella spp.

Rouxiella species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae family. They have been found in soil and as contaminants of parenteral nutrition bags.


Saccharopolyspora spp.

Saccharopolyspora species are gramā€positive, rod-shaped bacteria related to actinomycetes, whose main habitat is soil.

Salmonella spp.

Salmonella are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that inhabit the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals. They can also be found in fecally contaminated food and water, which serve as vehicles for transmission of the organism.

Serratia spp.

Serratia species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria which belong to the Enterobacteriaceae family. They are widely distributed on plants, soil, water, and many other environmental substrates (vegetables, animals, dairy products, insects, birds).

Shewanella putrefaciens

Shewanella species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria found in fresh and salt water, sewage, and food. They are a normal component of the surface flora of fish and are implicated in fish spoilage.

Shigella spp.

Shigella species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. Humans and other large primates are the only natural reservoirs.

Siccibacter turicensis

Siccibacter turicensis is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that was previously a member of the genus, Enterobacter. This organism was initially isolated from fruit powder.

Skermanella spp.

Skermanella species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that have been isolated from fresh water, sandy soil, air, and coal mines.

Solibacillus spp.

Solibacillus species (formerly Bacillus) are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are ubiquitous in nature. They form spores that are resistant to heat, desiccation, radiation, and disinfectants. Dissemination of spores via aerosols and dust contributes to contamination of indoor environments.

Sphingobacterium daejeonense

Sphingobacterium species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are found in soil, water and on plants and foodstuffs. These organisms have the ability to survive in moist hospital environments.

Sphingobacterium multivorum

Sphingobacterium species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are found in soil, water and on plants and foodstuffs. These organisms have the ability to survive in moist hospital environments.

Sphingobacterium spiritivorum

Sphingobacterium species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are found in soil, water and on plants and foodstuffs. These organisms have the ability to survive in moist hospital environments.

Sphingobacterium spp.

Sphingobacterium species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are found in soil, water and on plants and foodstuffs. These organisms have the ability to survive in moist hospital environments.

Sphingobacterium thalpophilum

Sphingobacterium species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are found in soil, water and on plants and foodstuffs. These organisms have the ability to survive in moist hospital environments.

Sphingobium spp.

Sphingobium species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly isolated from soil.

Sphingomonas melonis

Sphingomonas species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed in terrestrial and aquatic habitats as well as plant root systems and aqueous solutions.

Sphingomonas paucimobilis

Sphingomonas species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed in terrestrial and aquatic habitats as well as plant root systems and aqueous solutions.

Sphingomonas spp.

Sphingomonas species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed in terrestrial and aquatic habitats as well as plant root systems and aqueous solutions.

Sphingomonas trueperi

Sphingomonas species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed in terrestrial and aquatic habitats as well as plant root systems and aqueous solutions.

Sphingomonas yunnanensis

Sphingomonas species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed in terrestrial and aquatic habitats as well as plant root systems and aqueous solutions.

Sporosarcina luteola

Sporosarcina luteola is a gram-positive, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium that has been isolated from soy sauce production equipment. It is related to members of the Bacillus genus.

Sporosarcina spp.

Sporosarcina species are gram-positive, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria that are related to members of the Bacillus genus. They are widely distributed in the soil.

Staphylococcus arlettae

Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are gram-positive, spherical bacteria. The major habitats of CoNS are the skin and mucous membranes of mammals and birds. In humans, S. epidermidis is the most frequently isolated staphylococcal species colonizing the body surface.

Staphylococcus aureus

Staphylococcus aureus is a gram-positive, spherical bacterium that can be isolated as normal flora of the human anterior nares and throat.

For more information, visit our Staphylococcus Species page.

Staphylococcus auricularis

Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are gram-positive, spherical bacteria. The major habitats of CoNS are the skin and mucous membranes of mammals and birds. In humans, S. epidermidis is the most frequently isolated staphylococcal species colonizing the body surface.

Staphylococcus capitis

Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are gram-positive, spherical bacteria. The major habitats of CoNS are the skin and mucous membranes of mammals and birds. In humans, S. epidermidis is the most frequently isolated staphylococcal species colonizing the body surface.

Staphylococcus caprae

Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are gram-positive, spherical bacteria. The major habitats of CoNS are the skin and mucous membranes of mammals and birds. In humans, S. epidermidis is the most frequently isolated staphylococcal species colonizing the body surface.

Staphylococcus caprae/capitis

Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are gram-positive, spherical bacteria. The major habitats of CoNS are the skin and mucous membranes of mammals and birds. In humans, S. epidermidis is the most frequently isolated staphylococcal species colonizing the body surface.

Staphylococcus carnosus

Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are gram-positive, spherical bacteria. The major habitats of CoNS are the skin and mucous membranes of mammals and birds. In humans, S. epidermidis is the most frequently isolated staphylococcal species colonizing the body surface.

Staphylococcus chromogenes

Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are gram-positive, spherical bacteria. The major habitats of CoNS are the skin and mucous membranes of mammals and birds. In humans, S. epidermidis is the most frequently isolated staphylococcal species colonizing the body surface.

Staphylococcus cohnii

Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are gram-positive, spherical bacteria. The major habitats of CoNS are the skin and mucous membranes of mammals and birds. In humans, S. epidermidis is the most frequently isolated staphylococcal species colonizing the body surface.

Staphylococcus cohnii ssp urealyticus

Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are gram-positive, spherical bacteria. The major habitats of CoNS are the skin and mucous membranes of mammals and birds. In humans, S. epidermidis is the most frequently isolated staphylococcal species colonizing the body surface.

Staphylococcus delphini

Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are gram-positive, spherical bacteria. The major habitats of CoNS are the skin and mucous membranes of mammals and birds. In humans, S. epidermidis is the most frequently isolated staphylococcal species colonizing the body surface.

Staphylococcus epidermidis

Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are gram-positive, spherical bacteria. The major habitats of CoNS are the skin and mucous membranes of mammals and birds. In humans, S. epidermidis is the most frequently isolated staphylococcal species colonizing the body surface.

Staphylococcus equorum

Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are gram-positive, spherical bacteria. The major habitats of CoNS are the skin and mucous membranes of mammals and birds. In humans, S. epidermidis is the most frequently isolated staphylococcal species colonizing the body surface.

Staphylococcus gallinarum

Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are gram-positive, spherical bacteria. The major habitats of CoNS are the skin and mucous membranes of mammals and birds. In humans, S. epidermidis is the most frequently isolated staphylococcal species colonizing the body surface.

Staphylococcus haemolyticus

Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are gram-positive, spherical bacteria. The major habitats of CoNS are the skin and mucous membranes of mammals and birds. In humans, S. epidermidis is the most frequently isolated staphylococcal species colonizing the body surface.

Staphylococcus hominis

Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are gram-positive, spherical bacteria. The major habitats of CoNS are the skin and mucous membranes of mammals and birds. In humans, S. epidermidis is the most frequently isolated staphylococcal species colonizing the body surface.

Staphylococcus hyicus

Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are gram-positive, spherical bacteria. The major habitats of CoNS are the skin and mucous membranes of mammals and birds. In humans, S. epidermidis is the most frequently isolated staphylococcal species colonizing the body surface.

Staphylococcus intermedius

Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are gram-positive, spherical bacteria. The major habitats of CoNS are the skin and mucous membranes of mammals and birds. In humans, S. epidermidis is the most frequently isolated staphylococcal species colonizing the body surface.

Staphylococcus kloosii

Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are gram-positive, spherical bacteria. The major habitats of CoNS are the skin and mucous membranes of mammals and birds. In humans, S. epidermidis is the most frequently isolated staphylococcal species colonizing the body surface.

Staphylococcus lentus

Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are gram-positive, spherical bacteria. The major habitats of CoNS are the skin and mucous membranes of mammals and birds. In humans, S. epidermidis is the most frequently isolated staphylococcal species colonizing the body surface.

Staphylococcus lugdunensis

Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are gram-positive, spherical bacteria. The major habitats of CoNS are the skin and mucous membranes of mammals and birds. In humans, S. epidermidis is the most frequently isolated staphylococcal species colonizing the body surface.

Staphylococcus pasteuri

Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are gram-positive, spherical bacteria. The major habitats of CoNS are the skin and mucous membranes of mammals and birds. In humans, S. epidermidis is the most frequently isolated staphylococcal species colonizing the body surface.

Staphylococcus pseudintermedius

Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are gram-positive, spherical bacteria. The major habitats of CoNS are the skin and mucous membranes of mammals and birds. In humans, S. epidermidis is the most frequently isolated staphylococcal species colonizing the body surface.

Staphylococcus saccharolyticus

Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are gram-positive, spherical bacteria. The major habitats of CoNS are the skin and mucous membranes of mammals and birds. In humans, S. epidermidis is the most frequently isolated staphylococcal species colonizing the body surface.

Staphylococcus saprophyticus

Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are gram-positive, spherical bacteria. The major habitats of CoNS are the skin and mucous membranes of mammals and birds. In humans, S. epidermidis is the most frequently isolated staphylococcal species colonizing the body surface.

Staphylococcus schleiferi

Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are gram-positive, spherical bacteria. The major habitats of CoNS are the skin and mucous membranes of mammals and birds. In humans, S. epidermidis is the most frequently isolated staphylococcal species colonizing the body surface.

Staphylococcus sciuri

Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are gram-positive, spherical bacteria. The major habitats of CoNS are the skin and mucous membranes of mammals and birds. In humans, S. epidermidis is the most frequently isolated staphylococcal species colonizing the body surface.

Staphylococcus simulans

Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are gram-positive, spherical bacteria. The major habitats of CoNS are the skin and mucous membranes of mammals and birds. In humans, S. epidermidis is the most frequently isolated staphylococcal species colonizing the body surface.

Staphylococcus spp.

Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are gram-positive spherical bacteria. The major habitats of CoNS are the skin and mucous membranes of mammals and birds. In humans, S. epidermidis is the most frequently isolated staphylococcal species colonizing the body surface.

For more information, visit our Staphylococcus Species page.

Staphylococcus vitulinus

Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are gram-positive, spherical bacteria. The major habitats of CoNS are the skin and mucous membranes of mammals and birds. In humans, S. epidermidis is the most frequently isolated staphylococcal species colonizing the body surface.

Staphylococcus warneri

Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are gram-positive, spherical bacteria. The major habitats of CoNS are the skin and mucous membranes of mammals and birds. In humans, S. epidermidis is the most frequently isolated staphylococcal species colonizing the body surface.

Staphylococcus xylosus

Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are gram-positive, spherical bacteria. The major habitats of CoNS are the skin and mucous membranes of mammals and birds. In humans, S. epidermidis is the most frequently isolated staphylococcal species colonizing the body surface.

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is widely distributed in nature, including moist environments, water, and on fruits and vegetables. It can survive in chlorinated water distribution networks.

Stenotrophomonas rhizophila

Stenotrophomonas rhizophila is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium which is ubiquitous in the rhizosphere, the region of soil around plant roots.

Streptococcus agalactiae

Streptococcus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria that are frequently found as commensals on the mucous membranes of humans, mammals, and fish. They may also be transient colonizers of the human skin.

Streptococcus alactolyticus

Streptococcus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria that are frequently found as commensals on the mucous membranes of humans, mammals, and fish. They may also be transient colonizers of the human skin.

Streptococcus anginosus

Streptococcus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria that are frequently found as commensals on the mucous membranes of humans, mammals, and fish. They may also be transient colonizers of the human skin.

Streptococcus australis

Streptococcus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria that are frequently found as commensals on the mucous membranes of humans, mammals, and fish. They may also be transient colonizers of the human skin.

Streptococcus bovis

Streptococcus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria that are frequently found as commensals on the mucous membranes of humans, mammals, and fish. They may also be transient colonizers of the human skin.

Streptococcus canis

Streptococcus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria that are frequently found as commensals on the mucous membranes of humans, mammals, and fish. They may also be transient colonizers of the human skin.

Streptococcus constellatus

Streptococcus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria that are frequently found as commensals on the mucous membranes of humans, mammals, and fish. They may also be transient colonizers of the human skin.

Streptococcus cristatus

Streptococcus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria that are frequently found as commensals on the mucous membranes of humans, mammals, and fish. They may also be transient colonizers of the human skin.

Streptococcus dysgalactiae

Streptococcus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria that are frequently found as commensals on the mucous membranes of humans, mammals, and fish. They may also be transient colonizers of the human skin.

Streptococcus equi

Streptococcus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria that are frequently found as commensals on the mucous membranes of humans, mammals, and fish. They may also be transient colonizers of the human skin.

Streptococcus gallolyticus

Streptococcus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria that are frequently found as commensals on the mucous membranes of humans, mammals, and fish. They may also be transient colonizers of the human skin.

Streptococcus gordonii

Streptococcus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria that are frequently found as commensals on the mucous membranes of humans, mammals, and fish. They may also be transient colonizers of the human skin.

Streptococcus hyointestinalis

Streptococcus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria that are frequently found as commensals on the mucous membranes of humans, mammals, and fish. They may also be transient colonizers of the human skin.

Streptococcus hyovaginalis

Streptococcus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria that are frequently found as commensals on the mucous membranes of humans, mammals, and fish. They may also be transient colonizers of the human skin.

Streptococcus infantarius

Streptococcus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria that are frequently found as commensals on the mucous membranes of humans, mammals, and fish. They may also be transient colonizers of the human skin.

Streptococcus intermedius

Streptococcus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria that are frequently found as commensals on the mucous membranes of humans, mammals, and fish. They may also be transient colonizers of the human skin.

Streptococcus mitis

Streptococcus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria that are frequently found as commensals on the mucous membranes of humans, mammals, and fish. They may also be transient colonizers of the human skin.

Streptococcus mutans

Streptococcus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria that are frequently found as commensals on the mucous membranes of humans, mammals, and fish. They may also be transient colonizers of the human skin.

Streptococcus oligofermentans

Streptococcus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria that are frequently found as commensals on the mucous membranes of humans, mammals, and fish. They may also be transient colonizers of the human skin.

Streptococcus oralis

Streptococcus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria that are frequently found as commensals on the mucous membranes of humans, mammals, and fish. They may also be transient colonizers of the human skin.

Streptococcus ovis

Streptococcus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria that are frequently found as commensals on the mucous membranes of humans, mammals, and fish. They may also be transient colonizers of the human skin.

Streptococcus parasanguinis

Streptococcus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria that are frequently found as commensals on the mucous membranes of humans, mammals, and fish. They may also be transient colonizers of the human skin.

Streptococcus parauberis

Streptococcus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria that are frequently found as commensals on the mucous membranes of humans, mammals, and fish. They may also be transient colonizers of the human skin.

Streptococcus peroris

Streptococcus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria that are frequently found as commensals on the mucous membranes of humans, mammals, and fish. They may also be transient colonizers of the human skin.

Streptococcus pluranimalium

Streptococcus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria that are frequently found as commensals on the mucous membranes of humans, mammals, and fish. They may also be transient colonizers of the human skin.

Streptococcus porcinus

Streptococcus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria that are frequently found as commensals on the mucous membranes of humans, mammals, and fish. They may also be transient colonizers of the human skin.

Streptococcus salivarius

Streptococcus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria that are frequently found as commensals on the mucous membranes of humans, mammals, and fish. They may also be transient colonizers of the human skin.

Streptococcus salivarius ssp salivarius

Streptococcus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria that are frequently found as commensals on the mucous membranes of humans, mammals, and fish. They may also be transient colonizers of the human skin.

Streptococcus salivarius ssp thermophilus

Streptococcus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria that are frequently found as commensals on the mucous membranes of humans, mammals, and fish. They may also be transient colonizers of the human skin.

Streptococcus sanguinis

Streptococcus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria that are frequently found as commensals on the mucous membranes of humans, mammals, and fish. They may also be transient colonizers of the human skin.

Streptococcus sobrinus

Streptococcus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria that are frequently found as commensals on the mucous membranes of humans, mammals, and fish. They may also be transient colonizers of the human skin.

Streptococcus spp.

Streptococcus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria that are frequently found as commensals on the mucous membranes of humans, mammals, and fish. They may also be transient colonizers of the human skin.

Streptococcus suis

Streptococcus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria that are frequently found as commensals on the mucous membranes of humans, mammals, and fish. They may also be transient colonizers of the human skin.

Streptococcus thoraltensis

Streptococcus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria that are frequently found as commensals on the mucous membranes of humans, mammals, and fish. They may also be transient colonizers of the human skin.

Streptococcus uberis

Streptococcus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria that are frequently found as commensals on the mucous membranes of humans, mammals, and fish. They may also be transient colonizers of the human skin.

Streptococcus vestibularis

Streptococcus species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria that are frequently found as commensals on the mucous membranes of humans, mammals, and fish. They may also be transient colonizers of the human skin.

Streptomyces spp.

Streptomyces species are gram-positive, filamentous, rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed in terrestrial and aquatic habitats. They are most often associated with decomposing plant material.


Terribacillus spp.

Terribacillus species are gram-positive, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria that are related to Bacillus, whose main habitat is soil.

Tsukamurella spp.

Tsukamurella species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from a broad range of environments such as soil, water, and sludge.


Unidentifiable acid-fast bacillus

Unable to obtain an identification by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry; acid fast stain and morphology reported. Acid fast bacilli can include mycobacteria and some aerobic actinomycetes. This is not a definitive identification.

Unidentifiable gram-negative coccobacillus

Unable to obtain an identification by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry; Gram stain reaction and morphology reported. This is not a definitive identification.

Unidentifiable gram-negative coccus

Unable to obtain an identification by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry; Gram stain reaction and morphology reported. This is not a definitive identification.

Unidentifiable gram-negative rod

Unable to obtain an identification by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry; Gram stain reaction and morphology reported. This is not a definitive identification.

Unidentifiable gram-positive coccus

Unable to obtain an identification by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry; Gram stain reaction and morphology reported. This is not a definitive identification.

Unidentifiable gram-positive rod

Unable to obtain an identification by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry; Gram stain reaction and morphology reported. This is not a definitive identification.

Unidentifiable gram-variable coccobacillus

Unable to obtain an identification by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry; Gram stain reaction and morphology reported. This is not a definitive identification.

Unidentifiable gram-variable coccus

Unable to obtain an identification by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry; Gram stain reaction and morphology reported. This is not a definitive identification.

Unidentifiable gram-variable rod

Unable to obtain an identification by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry; Gram stain reaction and morphology reported. This is not a definitive identification.

Unidentified acid-fast bacillus

Identification not performed per customer request; acid fast stain and morphology reported. Acid fast bacilli can include mycobacteria and some aerobic actinomycetes. This is not a definitive identification.

Unidentified gram-negative coccobacillus

Identification not performed per customer request; Gram stain reaction and morphology reported. This is not a definitive identification.

Unidentified gram-negative coccus

Identification not performed per customer request; Gram stain reaction and morphology reported. This is not a definitive identification.

Unidentified gram-negative rod

Identification not performed per customer request; Gram stain reaction and morphology reported. This is not a definitive identification.

Unidentified gram-positive coccus

Identification not performed per customer request; Gram stain reaction and morphology reported. This is not a definitive identification.

Unidentified gram-positive rod

Identification not performed per customer request; Gram stain reaction and morphology reported. This is not a definitive identification.

Unidentified gram-variable coccobacillus

Identification not performed per customer request; Gram stain reaction and morphology reported. This is not a definitive identification.

Unidentified gram-variable coccus

Identification not performed per customer request; Gram stain reaction and morphology reported. This is not a definitive identification.

Unidentified gram-variable rod

Identification not performed per customer request; Gram stain reaction and morphology reported. This is not a definitive identification.


Virgibacillus pantothenticus

Virgibacillus species (formerly Bacillus) are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are ubiquitous in nature. They form spores that are resistant to heat, desiccation, radiation, and disinfectants. Dissemination of spores via aerosols and dust contributes to contamination of indoor environments.

Virgibacillus proomii

Virgibacillus species (formerly Bacillus) are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are ubiquitous in nature. They form spores that are resistant to heat, desiccation, radiation, and disinfectants. Dissemination of spores via aerosols and dust contributes to contamination of indoor environments.

Viridibacillus spp.

Viridibacillus species (formerly Bacillus) are gram-positive, or gram-variable, rod-shaped bacteria that are ubiquitous in nature. They form spores that are resistant to heat, desiccation, radiation, and disinfectants. Dissemination of spores via aerosols and dust contributes to contamination of indoor environments.


Weeksella virosa

Weeksella virosa is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that has been found on the mucous membranes of humans and other warm-blooded animals.

Weissella spp.

Weissella species are non-spore forming, gram-positive coccobacilli that are found in a wide range of habitats including raw milk, feces, fermented cereals, and vegetables.

Williamsia spp.

Williamsia species are gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that have been isolated from ocean and lake sediment.


Xanthomonas spp.

Xanthomonas species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that can cause a wide variety of plant diseases, such as leaf spot.


Yersinia spp.

Yersinia species are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are found in the gastrointestinal tracts of many animal species and in soil and water.

Yimella lutea

Yimella species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria related to the Dermacoccaceae family. Organisms within this family have been found on human skin and in the environment.

Yimella spp.

Yimella species are gram-positive, spherical bacteria related to the Dermacoccaceae family. Organisms within this family have been found on human skin and in the environment.


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