Absidia corymbifera

Absidia species are fungi belonging to the class Zygomycetes which form long ribbon-like hyphae with few septations. Zygomycetes, which also include Rhizopus, Mucor, and Rhizomucor, have a wide geographic distribution. They are thermotolerant and can use a variety of substrates as nutrient sources. They can be isolated in large numbers from soil or decomposing organic material. They have also been found in carpet and mattress dust, hay, flour, and potted plants. Their spores can often be found in the outdoor air. Infections are rare in healthy individuals unless trauma provides a portal of entry.

Absidia spp.

Absidia species are fungi belonging to the class Zygomycetes which form long ribbon-like hyphae with few septations. Zygomycetes, which also include Rhizopus, Mucor, and Rhizomucor, have a wide geographic distribution. They are thermotolerant and can use a variety of substrates as nutrient sources. They can be isolated in large numbers from soil or decomposing organic material. They have also been found in carpet and mattress dust, hay, flour, and potted plants. Their spores can often be found in the outdoor air. Infections are rare in healthy individuals unless trauma provides a portal of entry.

Acremonium curvulum

Acremonium species are fungi that are widespread in the environment, occurring in soil and decaying plant material. Their spores can be dispersed by insects, water droplets, and wind. They are known to colonize the surfaces of many indoor materials, as well as the HVAC systems of hospitals, schools, and commercial buildings. They generally require moist conditions to amplify (grow) indoors. They are a rare agent of human infection but can cause allergies and hypersensitivity pneumonitis.

Acremonium murorum

Acremonium species are fungi that are widespread in the environment, occurring in soil and decaying plant material. Their spores can be dispersed by insects, water droplets, and wind. They are known to colonize the surfaces of many indoor materials, as well as the HVAC systems of hospitals, schools, and commercial buildings. They generally require moist conditions to amplify (grow) indoors. They are a rare agent of human infection but can cause allergies and hypersensitivity pneumonitis.

Acremonium recifei

Acremonium species are fungi that are widespread in the environment, occurring in soil and decaying plant material. Their spores can be dispersed by insects, water droplets, and wind. They are known to colonize the surfaces of many indoor materials, as well as the HVAC systems of hospitals, schools, and commercial buildings. They generally require moist conditions to amplify (grow) indoors. They are a rare agent of human infection but can cause allergies and hypersensitivity pneumonitis.

Acremonium spp.

Acremonium species are fungi that are widespread in the environment, occurring in soil and decaying plant material. Their spores can be dispersed by insects, water droplets, and wind. They are known to colonize the surfaces of many indoor materials, as well as the HVAC systems of hospitals, schools, and commercial buildings. They generally require moist conditions to amplify (grow) indoors. They are a rare agent of human infection but can cause allergies and hypersensitivity pneumonitis.

Acremonium strictum

Acremonium species are fungi that are widespread in the environment, occurring in soil and decaying plant material. Their spores can be dispersed by insects, water droplets, and wind. They are known to colonize the surfaces of many indoor materials, as well as the HVAC systems of hospitals, schools, and commercial buildings. They generally require moist conditions to amplify (grow) indoors. They are a rare agent of human infection but can cause allergies and hypersensitivity pneumonitis.

Acrodontium spp.

Acrodontium species are fungi found in the soil, air, and on plants, where they can be pathogens. They can proliferate indoors under moist, wet conditions on drywall, paper, and carpet.

Alternaria alternata

Alternaria species are one of the most abundant fungi in the atmosphere, with the highest concentrations in summer and early fall in temperate zones. Their spores are dispersed by wind. They can be isolated from plants (either as pathogens or saprobes), soil, foodstuffs, and textiles. They are common in floor, carpet, and mattress dust; less frequently on damp walls, gypsum board, and wall paper. They are infrequent agents of human infection but are recognized as common causes of allergies and hypersensitivity pneumonitis.

Alternaria infectoria

Alternaria species are one of the most abundant fungi in the atmosphere, with the highest concentrations in summer and early fall in temperate zones. Their spores are dispersed by wind. They can be isolated from plants (either as pathogens or saprobes), soil, foodstuffs, and textiles. They are common in floor, carpet, and mattress dust; less frequently on damp walls, gypsum board, and wall paper. They are infrequent agents of human infection but are recognized as common causes of allergies and hypersensitivity pneumonitis.

Alternaria spp.

Alternaria species are one of the most abundant fungi in the atmosphere, with the highest concentrations in summer and early fall in temperate zones. Their spores are dispersed by wind. They can be isolated from plants (either as pathogens or saprobes), soil, foodstuffs, and textiles. They are common in floor, carpet, and mattress dust; less frequently on damp walls, gypsum board, and wall paper. They are infrequent agents of human infection but are recognized as common causes of allergies and hypersensitivity pneumonitis.

Aphanocladium spp.

Aphanocladium species are fungi found in leaf litter and rotting bark. No human infections have been reported.

Arthrinium spp.

Arthrinium species are fungi found in soil and decomposing plant material and occasionally in the indoor environment. Its spores are dispersed by wind. None of the species are known to form mycotoxin and no infections have been reported in humans or animals.

Arthrographis kalrae

Arthrographis species are cosmopolitan yeast-like fungi isolated from soil and decaying vegetation. No known toxins are produced. They are an uncommon cause of human infection.

Arthrographis spp.

Arthrographis species are cosmopolitan yeast-like fungi isolated from soil and decaying vegetation. No known toxins are produced. They are an uncommon cause of human infection.

Articulospora proliferata

Articulospora proliferata is a fungus with a worldwide distribution in aquatic environments. No human infections have been reported.

Ascochyta rabiei

Ascochyta rabiei (also known as Phoma rabiei) is an ascomycete fungus that can be pathogenic to chickpea crops. No human infections have been reported.

Ascochyta rabiei

Ascochyta is a species of fungus that is pathogenic to plants. It causes blight in leaves and lawns. No known human infections have been reported.

Ascomycete

Ascomycetes comprise the largest group of fungi with over 64,000 species. They are known as the sac fungi and include such common forms as morels and truffles. Many species are plant pathogens which degrade non-woody biomass producing soft-rot decay.

Ascomycota

Ascomycetes comprise the largest group of fungi with over 64,000 species. They are known as the sac fungi and include such common forms as morels and truffles. Many species are plant pathogens which degrade non-woody biomass producing soft-rot decay.

Aspergillus clavatus

Aspergillus clavatus is a fungus that has been implicated in various pulmonary infections and allergic aspergillosis. Infections in the hospitalized or immunocompromised patient may be related to building construction, earth moving, demolition or renovation works adjacent to, or inside, the building and HVAC systems.

Aspergillus flavus

Aspergillus flavus is a fungus that grows on moldy corn, peanuts, and other agricultural products. It can be found in soil, foods, and dairy products. Infections in humans are uncommon, however, some strains can produce mycotoxins (aflatoxin)..

Aspergillus fumigatus

Aspergillus fumigatus is a fungus that may be recovered from the indoor environment and is common in trash, house dust, and compost. It is one of the first colonizers of moist/wet indoor materials. It is commonly recovered outdoors in compost piles, wood chips, soil, plants, seeds, and cotton. It flourishes in mild to warm soils and vegetable matter decomposing in warm environments, such as self-heating hay and composts. A. fumigatus is the most pathogenic Aspergillus species, causing >90% of Aspergillus infections in humans.

Aspergillus glaucus

Aspergillus glaucus is a fungus with a worldwide distribution that can be isolated from soils and a wide range of saprophytic habitats. It is xerophilic (can grow with low moisture) and is especially common on dry or concentrated substances such as dried foods and leather.

Aspergillus nidulans

Aspergillus nidulans is a widespread fungus found in mild to warm soils and on slowly decaying plant material. It also can be found on potatoes, grain, citrus, and stored seeds of oats, wheat, corn, rice, and cotton. Infections in humans are uncommon

Aspergillus niger

Aspergillus niger is a fungus with a worldwide distribution in soil and on plant litter. It is a frequent contaminant of spices and other sun-dried plant products. Often found in the indoor environment but not generally associated with contaminated building materials. Infections in humans are uncommon, however, some strains can produce mycotoxins (ochratoxin, fumonisin).

Aspergillus ochraceus

Aspergillus ochraceus is a fungus with a worldwide distribution in soil and on plant litter. It is a frequent contaminant of spices and coffee beans. Infections in humans are uncommon, however, some strains can produce mycotoxins (ochratoxin and others).

Aspergillus parasiticus

Aspergillus parasiticus is a fungus that is widely distributed in foodstuffs and is a common food spoilage organism. There are no reports of human infection, however, it can produce mycotoxins (aflatoxin).

Aspergillus restrictus

Aspergillus restrictus is a fungus that has been isolated from soil, seeds, fruit juice, and air. It is xerophilic (can grow with low moisture) and has been found indoors in carpet and fabrics.

Aspergillus spp.

Aspergillus species are prevalent worldwide and include at least 300 species. They are commonly found in soil, decaying plant debris, compost, and stored grains. Many members of this group are allergenic and can produce mycotoxins. Aspergillus fumigatus is the most common species isolated from human infections.

Aspergillus sydowii

Aspergillus sydowii is a fungus with a worldwide distribution, often isolated from soil, cotton, leather, paper, food products. Commonly found indoors on moldy gypsum board, wallpaper, and paint. Infections in humans are uncommon.

Aspergillus terreus

Aspergillus terreus is a fungus with worldwide distribution, often found in soil and stored crops. Uncommonly occurs on building materials but can be found indoors in floor, carpet, and mattress dust. Infections in humans are uncommon, however, some strains can produce mycotoxins (terrein, patulin, citrinin, citreoviridin).

Aspergillus ustus

Aspergillus ustus is a fungus with worldwide distribution, commonly found in soil, cereals, and groundnuts. Infections in humans are uncommon, however, some strains can produce mycotoxins (austamide, austdiol, austins, austocystins).

Aspergillus versicolor

Aspergillus versicolor is a fungus with worldwide distribution, commonly found in soil and stored food products. It can be detected in very cold regions, unlike most other Aspergillus species which prefer warmer regions. It is very common in indoor environments with humidity and ventilation problems, being found on gypsum board and other moldy building materials. Infections in humans are uncommon, however, some strains can produce mycotoxins (sterigmatocystin).

Aureobasidium pullulans

Aureobasidium pullulans is a cosmopolitan yeast-like fungus with its main habitat on the aerial parts of plants. It is frequently isolated indoors in moist areas such as condensate pans, flooded carpet, and other sites where water intrusion has occurred. The spores generally become airborne indoors through mechanical disruption of contaminated materials. Its spore count outdoors increases due to dispersion by rain drops. It is a rare agent of human infection but is a common cause of allergies and hypersensitivity pneumonitis.


Basidiomycete

Basidiomycetes include mushrooms, smuts, rusts, puffballs, and bracket fungi. Their presence indoors usually indicates the entrance of inadequately filtered fresh air, since few materials indoors will normally support growth of these fungi. Near woodland areas or forests, basidiomycetes may dominate the types of fungi isolated outdoors, especially after a rain or before noontime. Fungi which cause dry rot and white and brown wood rot are also basidiomycetes which destroy wood substances as they grow.

Beauveria spp.

Beauveria species are ubiquitous fungi in soil and plant debris; their spores are dispersed by wind. Some species are parasites of insects, such as Beauveria bassiana, the etiologic agent of the devastating muscardine disease of silkworms. Beauveria are infrequent causes of human infection. These fungi should be considered allergenic, but no toxic diseases have been documented to date.

Bipolaris spp.

Bipolaris species are dematiaceous (pigmented) filamentous fungi that are widespread in nature and are most frequently associated with grasses, plant material, decaying food, and soil. Nearly all species of this genus are pathogenic to grasses, while some are common saprobes on dead plant material and in soil. Their spores are dispersed by wind. They are rare agents of human infection but are considered common allergens.

Blastoschizomyces spp.

Blastoschizomyces capitatus (formerly Trichosporon) is a yeast-like fungus that is isolated from environmental sources such as soil, beach sand, and as normal flora of the skin, respiratory, and digestive tracts of humans. It is a rare agent of human infection.

Botryosphaeria obtusa

Botryosphaeria obtusa is a fungus which causes black rot disease of fruit, leaves, and bark of trees in the pomaceous family, e.g. apples, pears. No human infections have been reported.

Botryotrichum spp.

Botryotrichum species are fungi that are occasionally found on dead herbaceous plants and frequently isolated from air, canvas, cellophane, dung, paper, and soil. Human infection and allergic potential are unknown.

Botrytis spp.

Botrytis species are fungi that are parasitic on plants, vegetables, and soft fruits. They have also been found in soil and as plant saprophytes of leaves, flowers, and stems. Their spores are dispersed by wind and rain splash. Indoors they have been found in floor, carpet, and mattress dust and on moldy cardboard. They are rare agents of human infection but are considered to be allergenic.


Candida aaseri

Candida species are yeasts which are frequent colonizers of human skin and mucous membranes. They have been detected from a variety of environmental sources, including mammals, birds, air samples, plants, flowers, water, juices, dairy products, grains, and insects. The genus comprises approximately 154 species, with C. albicans being the most common species involved in human infection. Other common species include C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei.

Candida africana

Candida species are yeasts which are frequent colonizers of human skin and mucous membranes. They have been detected from a variety of environmental sources, including mammals, birds, air samples, plants, flowers, water, juices, dairy products, grains, and insects. The genus comprises approximately 154 species, with C. albicans being the most common species involved in human infection. Other common species include C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei.

Candida albicans

Candida species are yeasts which are frequent colonizers of human skin and mucous membranes. They have been detected from a variety of environmental sources, including mammals, birds, air samples, plants, flowers, water, juices, dairy products, grains, and insects. The genus comprises approximately 154 species, with C. albicans being the most common species involved in human infection. Other common species include C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei.

Candida boidinii

Candida species are yeasts which are frequent colonizers of human skin and mucous membranes. They have been detected from a variety of environmental sources, including mammals, birds, air samples, plants, flowers, water, juices, dairy products, grains, and insects. The genus comprises approximately 154 species, with C. albicans being the most common species involved in human infection. Other common species include C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei.

Candida bracarensis

Candida species are yeasts which are frequent colonizers of human skin and mucous membranes. They have been detected from a variety of environmental sources, including mammals, birds, air samples, plants, flowers, water, juices, dairy products, grains, and insects. The genus comprises approximately 154 species, with C. albicans being the most common species involved in human infection. Other common species include C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei.

Candida cacaoi

Candida species are yeasts which are frequent colonizers of human skin and mucous membranes. They have been detected from a variety of environmental sources, including mammals, birds, air samples, plants, flowers, water, juices, dairy products, grains, and insects. The genus comprises approximately 154 species, with C. albicans being the most common species involved in human infection. Other common species include C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei.

Candida cariosilignicola

Candida species are yeasts which are frequent colonizers of human skin and mucous membranes. They have been detected from a variety of environmental sources, including mammals, birds, air samples, plants, flowers, water, juices, dairy products, grains, and insects. The genus comprises approximately 154 species, with C. albicans being the most common species involved in human infection. Other common species include C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei.

Candida catenulata

Candida species are yeasts which are frequent colonizers of human skin and mucous membranes. They have been detected from a variety of environmental sources, including mammals, birds, air samples, plants, flowers, water, juices, dairy products, grains, and insects. The genus comprises approximately 154 species, with C. albicans being the most common species involved in human infection. Other common species include C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei.

Candida colliculosa

Candida species are yeasts which are frequent colonizers of human skin and mucous membranes. They have been detected from a variety of environmental sources, including mammals, birds, air samples, plants, flowers, water, juices, dairy products, grains, and insects. The genus comprises approximately 154 species, with C. albicans being the most common species involved in human infection. Other common species include C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei.

Candida cylindracea

Candida species are yeasts which are frequent colonizers of human skin and mucous membranes. They have been detected from a variety of environmental sources, including mammals, birds, air samples, plants, flowers, water, juices, dairy products, grains, and insects. The genus comprises approximately 154 species, with C. albicans being the most common species involved in human infection. Other common species include C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei.

Candida dattila

Candida species are yeasts which are frequent colonizers of human skin and mucous membranes. They have been detected from a variety of environmental sources, including mammals, birds, air samples, plants, flowers, water, juices, dairy products, grains, and insects. The genus comprises approximately 154 species, with C. albicans being the most common species involved in human infection. Other common species include C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei.

Candida dubliniensis

Candida species are yeasts which are frequent colonizers of human skin and mucous membranes. They have been detected from a variety of environmental sources, including mammals, birds, air samples, plants, flowers, water, juices, dairy products, grains, and insects. The genus comprises approximately 154 species, with C. albicans being the most common species involved in human infection. Other common species include C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei.

Candida famata

Candida species are yeasts which are frequent colonizers of human skin and mucous membranes. They have been detected from a variety of environmental sources, including mammals, birds, air samples, plants, flowers, water, juices, dairy products, grains, and insects. The genus comprises approximately 154 species, with C. albicans being the most common species involved in human infection. Other common species include C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei.

Candida freyschussii

Candida species are yeasts which are frequent colonizers of human skin and mucous membranes. They have been detected from a variety of environmental sources, including mammals, birds, air samples, plants, flowers, water, juices, dairy products, grains, and insects. The genus comprises approximately 154 species, with C. albicans being the most common species involved in human infection. Other common species include C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei.

Candida glabrata

Candida species are yeasts which are frequent colonizers of human skin and mucous membranes. They have been detected from a variety of environmental sources, including mammals, birds, air samples, plants, flowers, water, juices, dairy products, grains, and insects. The genus comprises approximately 154 species, with C. albicans being the most common species involved in human infection. Other common species include C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei.

Candida globosa

Candida species are yeasts which are frequent colonizers of human skin and mucous membranes. They have been detected from a variety of environmental sources, including mammals, birds, air samples, plants, flowers, water, juices, dairy products, grains, and insects. The genus comprises approximately 154 species, with C. albicans being the most common species involved in human infection. Other common species include C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei.

Candida guilliermondii

Candida species are yeasts which are frequent colonizers of human skin and mucous membranes. They have been detected from a variety of environmental sources, including mammals, birds, air samples, plants, flowers, water, juices, dairy products, grains, and insects. The genus comprises approximately 154 species, with C. albicans being the most common species involved in human infection. Other common species include C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei.

Candida holmii

Candida species are yeasts which are frequent colonizers of human skin and mucous membranes. They have been detected from a variety of environmental sources, including mammals, birds, air samples, plants, flowers, water, juices, dairy products, grains, and insects. The genus comprises approximately 154 species, with C. albicans being the most common species involved in human infection. Other common species include C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei.

Candida inconspicua

Candida species are yeasts which are frequent colonizers of human skin and mucous membranes. They have been detected from a variety of environmental sources, including mammals, birds, air samples, plants, flowers, water, juices, dairy products, grains, and insects. The genus comprises approximately 154 species, with C. albicans being the most common species involved in human infection. Other common species include C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei.

Candida intermedia

Candida species are yeasts which are frequent colonizers of human skin and mucous membranes. They have been detected from a variety of environmental sources, including mammals, birds, air samples, plants, flowers, water, juices, dairy products, grains, and insects. The genus comprises approximately 154 species, with C. albicans being the most common species involved in human infection. Other common species include C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei.

Candida kefyr

Candida species are yeasts which are frequent colonizers of human skin and mucous membranes. They have been detected from a variety of environmental sources, including mammals, birds, air samples, plants, flowers, water, juices, dairy products, grains, and insects. The genus comprises approximately 154 species, with C. albicans being the most common species involved in human infection. Other common species include C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei.

Candida krusei

Candida species are yeasts which are frequent colonizers of human skin and mucous membranes. They have been detected from a variety of environmental sources, including mammals, birds, air samples, plants, flowers, water, juices, dairy products, grains, and insects. The genus comprises approximately 154 species, with C. albicans being the most common species involved in human infection. Other common species include C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei.

Candida lambica

Candida species are yeasts which are frequent colonizers of human skin and mucous membranes. They have been detected from a variety of environmental sources, including mammals, birds, air samples, plants, flowers, water, juices, dairy products, grains, and insects. The genus comprises approximately 154 species, with C. albicans being the most common species involved in human infection. Other common species include C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei.

Candida lipolytica

Candida species are yeasts which are frequent colonizers of human skin and mucous membranes. They have been detected from a variety of environmental sources, including mammals, birds, air samples, plants, flowers, water, juices, dairy products, grains, and insects. The genus comprises approximately 154 species, with C. albicans being the most common species involved in human infection. Other common species include C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei.

Candida magnoliae

Candida species are yeasts which are frequent colonizers of human skin and mucous membranes. They have been detected from a variety of environmental sources, including mammals, birds, air samples, plants, flowers, water, juices, dairy products, grains, and insects. The genus comprises approximately 154 species, with C. albicans being the most common species involved in human infection. Other common species include C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei.

Candida melibiosica

Candida species are yeasts which are frequent colonizers of human skin and mucous membranes. They have been detected from a variety of environmental sources, including mammals, birds, air samples, plants, flowers, water, juices, dairy products, grains, and insects. The genus comprises approximately 154 species, with C. albicans being the most common species involved in human infection. Other common species include C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei.

Candida metapsilosis

Candida species are yeasts which are frequent colonizers of human skin and mucous membranes. They have been detected from a variety of environmental sources, including mammals, birds, air samples, plants, flowers, water, juices, dairy products, grains, and insects. The genus comprises approximately 154 species, with C. albicans being the most common species involved in human infection. Other common species include C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei.

Candida nivariensis

Candida species are yeasts which are frequent colonizers of human skin and mucous membranes. They have been detected from a variety of environmental sources, including mammals, birds, air samples, plants, flowers, water, juices, dairy products, grains, and insects. The genus comprises approximately 154 species, with C. albicans being the most common species involved in human infection. Other common species include C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei.

Candida norvegensis

Candida species are yeasts which are frequent colonizers of human skin and mucous membranes. They have been detected from a variety of environmental sources, including mammals, birds, air samples, plants, flowers, water, juices, dairy products, grains, and insects. The genus comprises approximately 154 species, with C. albicans being the most common species involved in human infection. Other common species include C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei.

Candida norvegica

Candida species are yeasts which are frequent colonizers of human skin and mucous membranes. They have been detected from a variety of environmental sources, including mammals, birds, air samples, plants, flowers, water, juices, dairy products, grains, and insects. The genus comprises approximately 154 species, with C. albicans being the most common species involved in human infection. Other common species include C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei.

Candida orthopsilosis

Candida species are yeasts which are frequent colonizers of human skin and mucous membranes. They have been detected from a variety of environmental sources, including mammals, birds, air samples, plants, flowers, water, juices, dairy products, grains, and insects. The genus comprises approximately 154 species, with C. albicans being the most common species involved in human infection. Other common species include C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei.

Candida parapsilosis

Candida species are yeasts which are frequent colonizers of human skin and mucous membranes. They have been detected from a variety of environmental sources, including mammals, birds, air samples, plants, flowers, water, juices, dairy products, grains, and insects. The genus comprises approximately 154 species, with C. albicans being the most common species involved in human infection. Other common species include C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei.

Candida pararugosa

Candida species are yeasts which are frequent colonizers of human skin and mucous membranes. They have been detected from a variety of environmental sources, including mammals, birds, air samples, plants, flowers, water, juices, dairy products, grains, and insects. The genus comprises approximately 154 species, with C. albicans being the most common species involved in human infection. Other common species include C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei.

Candida pelliculosa

Candida species are yeasts which are frequent colonizers of human skin and mucous membranes. They have been detected from a variety of environmental sources, including mammals, birds, air samples, plants, flowers, water, juices, dairy products, grains, and insects. The genus comprises approximately 154 species, with C. albicans being the most common species involved in human infection. Other common species include C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei.

Candida pulcherrima

Candida species are yeasts which are frequent colonizers of human skin and mucous membranes. They have been detected from a variety of environmental sources, including mammals, birds, air samples, plants, flowers, water, juices, dairy products, grains, and insects. The genus comprises approximately 154 species, with C. albicans being the most common species involved in human infection. Other common species include C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei.

Candida rugosa

Candida species are yeasts which are frequent colonizers of human skin and mucous membranes. They have been detected from a variety of environmental sources, including mammals, birds, air samples, plants, flowers, water, juices, dairy products, grains, and insects. The genus comprises approximately 154 species, with C. albicans being the most common species involved in human infection. Other common species include C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei.

Candida silvicola

Candida species are yeasts which are frequent colonizers of human skin and mucous membranes. They have been detected from a variety of environmental sources, including mammals, birds, air samples, plants, flowers, water, juices, dairy products, grains, and insects. The genus comprises approximately 154 species, with C. albicans being the most common species involved in human infection. Other common species include C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei.

Candida sorbosa

Candida species are yeasts which are frequent colonizers of human skin and mucous membranes. They have been detected from a variety of environmental sources, including mammals, birds, air samples, plants, flowers, water, juices, dairy products, grains, and insects. The genus comprises approximately 154 species, with C. albicans being the most common species involved in human infection. Other common species include C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei.

Candida sphaerica

Candida species are yeasts which are frequent colonizers of human skin and mucous membranes. They have been detected from a variety of environmental sources, including mammals, birds, air samples, plants, flowers, water, juices, dairy products, grains, and insects. The genus comprises approximately 154 species, with C. albicans being the most common species involved in human infection. Other common species include C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei.

Candida spp.

Candida species are yeasts which are frequent colonizers of human skin and mucous membranes. They have been detected from a variety of environmental sources, including mammals, birds, air samples, plants, flowers, water, juices, dairy products, grains, and insects. The genus comprises approximately 154 species, with C. albicans being the most common species involved in human infection. Other common species include C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei.

Candida steatolytica

Candida species are yeasts which are frequent colonizers of human skin and mucous membranes. They have been detected from a variety of environmental sources, including mammals, birds, air samples, plants, flowers, water, juices, dairy products, grains, and insects. The genus comprises approximately 154 species, with C. albicans being the most common species involved in human infection. Other common species include C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei.

Candida tropicalis

Candida species are yeasts which are frequent colonizers of human skin and mucous membranes. They have been detected from a variety of environmental sources, including mammals, birds, air samples, plants, flowers, water, juices, dairy products, grains, and insects. The genus comprises approximately 154 species, with C. albicans being the most common species involved in human infection. Other common species include C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei.

Candida utilis

Candida species are yeasts which are frequent colonizers of human skin and mucous membranes. They have been detected from a variety of environmental sources, including mammals, birds, air samples, plants, flowers, water, juices, dairy products, grains, and insects. The genus comprises approximately 154 species, with C. albicans being the most common species involved in human infection. Other common species include C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei.

Candida valida

Candida species are yeasts which are frequent colonizers of human skin and mucous membranes. They have been detected from a variety of environmental sources, including mammals, birds, air samples, plants, flowers, water, juices, dairy products, grains, and insects. The genus comprises approximately 154 species, with C. albicans being the most common species involved in human infection. Other common species include C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei.

Candida variabilis

Candida species are yeasts which are frequent colonizers of human skin and mucous membranes. They have been detected from a variety of environmental sources, including mammals, birds, air samples, plants, flowers, water, juices, dairy products, grains, and insects. The genus comprises approximately 154 species, with C. albicans being the most common species involved in human infection. Other common species include C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei.

Candida viswanathii

Candida species are yeasts which are frequent colonizers of human skin and mucous membranes. They have been detected from a variety of environmental sources, including mammals, birds, air samples, plants, flowers, water, juices, dairy products, grains, and insects. The genus comprises approximately 154 species, with C. albicans being the most common species involved in human infection. Other common species include C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei.

Candida zeylanoides

Candida species are yeasts which are frequent colonizers of human skin and mucous membranes. They have been detected from a variety of environmental sources, including mammals, birds, air samples, plants, flowers, water, juices, dairy products, grains, and insects. The genus comprises approximately 154 species, with C. albicans being the most common species involved in human infection. Other common species include C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei.

Cephaliophora spp.

Cephaliophora species are fungi that are pathogens of fresh water rotifers. A single case of keratitis has been reported in humans.

Cercospora spp.

Cercospora species are fungi with a world-wide distribution that are parasitic on many higher plants, commonly causing leaf spots. Their spores are dispersed by wind and are common in agricultural areas. One case of human infection has been reported and their allergic potential is unknown.<br />

Chaetomium globosum

Chaetomium species are fungi found in soil, air, and plant debris. Indoors they can be found on a variety of substrates containing cellulose including paper, textiles, plaster, and water-damaged sheetrock paper. They are very common on materials that have been wet/moist for an extended period of time. Chaetomium produces ascospores that are forcibly ejected from fruiting structures to be dispersed by wind, water splash, and insects. They are rare agents of human infection but can be allergenic; some species produce mycotoxins.

Chaetomium spp.

Chaetomium species are fungi found in soil, air, and plant debris. Indoors they can be found on a variety of substrates containing cellulose including paper, textiles, plaster, and water-damaged sheetrock paper. They are very common on materials that have been wet/moist for an extended period of time. Chaetomium produces ascospores that are forcibly ejected from fruiting structures to be dispersed by wind, water splash, and insects. They are rare agents of human infection but can be allergenic; some species produce mycotoxins.

Choanephora spp.

Choanephora species are fungi found in soil and on plants. They cause wet rot in many crops, particularly squash and cucumbers. No human infections have been reported.

Chrysonilia spp.

Chrysonilia species are fungi with a wide distribution in soil and on decaying plant matter. Chrysonilia sitophila is commonly referred to as the red bread mold. It has been isolated from bread, fruit, coffee grounds, carpet and mattress dust. Chrysonilia has been known to induce asthma in loggers. It is a rare human pathogen and its allergic potential and toxicity is unknown.

Chrysosporium indicum

Chrysosporium species are saprophytic fungi isolated in soils associated with keratinous substrates such as shed hair, skin cells, fur, feathers, hooves, etc. Human infections are rare and allergic potential and toxicities are unknown.

Chrysosporium keratinophilum

Chrysosporium species are saprophytic fungi isolated in soils associated with keratinous substrates such as shed hair, skin cells, fur, feathers, hooves, etc. Human infections are rare and allergic potential and toxicities are unknown.

Chrysosporium spp.

Chrysosporium species are saprophytic fungi isolated in soils associated with keratinous substrates such as shed hair, skin cells, fur, feathers, hooves, etc. Human infections are rare and allergic potential and toxicities are unknown.

Cladophialophora spp.

Cladophialophora species are dematiaceous (dark pigmented) fungi widely distributed in the soil and on plant debris. Some species cause rare human infections.

Cladosporium cladosporioides

Cladosporium species are ubiquitous with worldwide distribution and are the most common mold on dead organic matter and in the air. The spores are readily dispersed by wind. The highest outdoor concentrations in temperate areas occur in summer and early fall. They are common in indoor environments and can be isolated from floor, carpet, and mattress dust; HVAC insulation/filters/fans; wet building elements such as gypsum board, painted walls/wood, shower walls, and wall paper. Human infection is rare but allergic reaction is common, including asthma and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. No human toxicity has been reported.

Cladosporium sphaerospermum

Cladosporium species are ubiquitous with worldwide distribution and are the most common mold on dead organic matter and in the air. The spores are readily dispersed by wind. The highest outdoor concentrations in temperate areas occur in summer and early fall. They are common in indoor environments and can be isolated from floor, carpet, and mattress dust; HVAC insulation/filters/fans; wet building elements such as gypsum board, painted walls/wood, shower walls, and wall paper. Human infection is rare but allergic reaction is common, including asthma and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. No human toxicity has been reported.

Cladosporium spp.

Cladosporium species are ubiquitous with worldwide distribution and are the most common mold on dead organic matter and in the air. The spores are readily dispersed by wind. The highest outdoor concentrations in temperate areas occur in summer and early fall. They are common in indoor environments and can be isolated from floor, carpet, and mattress dust; HVAC insulation/filters/fans; wet building elements such as gypsum board, painted walls/wood, shower walls, and wall paper. Human infection is rare but allergic reaction is common, including asthma and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. No human toxicity has been reported.

Clavispora (Cryptococcus) lusitaniae

Cryptococcus species are yeasts that are found worldwide, particularly in association with avian manure and nests. They are also found in rotting vegetables, wood, dairy products, and soil. C. neoformans is the most pathogenic species, causing systemic disease in immunocompromised patients.

Coelomycete

Coelomycetes are fungi which are found in soil and as saprophytes or parasites on plants and vertebrates. They can be found indoors on cellulose-based substrates such as wall board, wood, drywall paper, and wall paper. They produce conidia (spores) in fruiting bodies, typically presenting as dry or slimy masses. Conidia are spread by insects, wind, and water splash. Examples of Coelomycetes are Colletotrichum, Pyrenochaeta, and Phoma species. No human infections or toxicity have been reported but allergic reactions (hay fever, asthma) are known to occur.

Colletotrichum spp.

Colletotrichum species are fungi found primarily in subtropical and tropical areas. They are major plant pathogens, causing devasting crop diseases worldwide. No human infections or toxicities have been reported.

Coprinellus xanthrothix

Coprinellus species are a type of basidiomycete fungi which grow as mushrooms on rotting wood. No known human infections have been reported.

Coprinopsis spp.

Coprinopsis species are a type of basidiomycete fungi that form mushrooms. No known human infections have been reported.

Cryptococcus curvatus

Cryptococcus species are yeasts that are found worldwide, particularly in association with avian manure and nests. They are also found in rotting vegetables, wood, dairy products, and soil. C. neoformans is the most pathogenic species, causing systemic disease in immunocompromised patients.

Cryptococcus gattii

Cryptococcus species are yeasts that are found worldwide, particularly in association with avian manure and nests. They are also found in rotting vegetables, wood, dairy products, and soil. C. neoformans is the most pathogenic species, causing systemic disease in immunocompromised patients.

Cryptococcus laurentii

Cryptococcus species are yeasts that are found worldwide, particularly in association with avian manure and nests. They are also found in rotting vegetables, wood, dairy products, and soil. C. neoformans is the most pathogenic species, causing systemic disease in immunocompromised patients.

Cryptococcus neoformans

Cryptococcus species are yeasts that are found worldwide, particularly in association with avian manure and nests. They are also found in rotting vegetables, wood, dairy products, and soil. C. neoformans is the most pathogenic species, causing systemic disease in immunocompromised patients.

Cryptococcus spp.

Cryptococcus species are yeasts that are found worldwide, particularly in association with avian manure and nests. They are also found in rotting vegetables, wood, dairy products, and soil. C. neoformans is the most pathogenic species, causing systemic disease in immunocompromised patients.

Cryptococcus spp. (not C. neoformans)

Cryptococcus species are yeasts that are found worldwide, particularly in association with avian manure and nests. They are also found in rotting vegetables, wood, dairy products, and soil. C. neoformans is the most pathogenic species, causing systemic disease in immunocompromised patients.

Cryptococcus terreus

Cryptococcus species are yeasts that are found worldwide, particularly in association with avian manure and nests. They are also found in rotting vegetables, wood, dairy products, and soil. C. neoformans is the most pathogenic species, causing systemic disease in immunocompromised patients.

Cryptococcus uniguttulatus

Cryptococcus species are yeasts that are found worldwide, particularly in association with avian manure and nests. They are also found in rotting vegetables, wood, dairy products, and soil. C. neoformans is the most pathogenic species, causing systemic disease in immunocompromised patients.

Cunninghamella bertholletiae

Cunninghamella species are zygomycete fungi with a wide distribution in decaying vegetation and animal matter, in the soil, and recovered from foodstuffs and fruit. These fungi have been mainly found in Mediterranean or subtropical climatic zones. C. bertholletiae is known as an occasional agent of human infection.

Cunninghamella spp.

Cunninghamella species are zygomycete fungi with a wide distribution in decaying vegetation and animal matter, in the soil, and recovered from foodstuffs and fruit. These fungi have been mainly found in Mediterranean or subtropical climatic zones. C. bertholletiae is known as an occasional agent of human infection.

Curvularia spp.

Curvularia species are fungi with a world-wide distribution, preferring tropical and subtropical climates. They are found in soil, on dead plant material, as pathogens on live plants, and indoors on cellulose substrates such as paper. There is no associated human toxicity and infections are infrequent. These species are common allergens, causing hayfever, asthma, and sinusitis.

Cystobasidium spp.

Cystobasidium species are a type of basidiomycete yeast found in the outdoor environment. No known human infections have been reported.


Diaporthe spp.

Diaporthe species are fungi which have broad host ranges and are widely distributed, occurring as plant pathogens or endophytes. No human infections have been reported.

Dicyma spp.

Dicyma species are dematiaceous (dark pigment) fungi found originally in sandy soil. Human infections and toxicity have not been reported.

Discula spp.

Discula species are a type of fungus that cause disease in oak trees. No human infections have been reported.

Doratomyces spp.

Doratomyces species are fungi with a worldwide distribution, occurring of a variety of organic substrates such as wood, herbaceous stems, dung, and soil. Human infection and toxicity have not been reported.


Emmonsia spp.

Emmonsia species are fungi with a cosmopolitan distribution in soil. Emmonsia has been isolated from numerous mammalian species, especially small rodents, being transmitted through inhalation of airborne spores. Human infections are uncommon.

Engyodontium spp.

Engyodontium is a fungus which is commonly detected in soil and plant debris. Indoors it is frequently found on paper, jute, linen, and painted walls. Human infection is rare and there is no known toxicity or allergenicity associated with this organism.

Epicoccum spp.

Epicoccum species are dematiaceous (pigmented) fungi with widespread distribution in air, animals, and foodstuffs. These species are common early secondary invaders of numerous plants causing leaf spots. Indoors they can be found on fabric, drywall, wood, carpet, and painted surfaces. Epicoccum species are common allergens, but no documented human infections or toxicity have been reported.

Eurotium herbariorum

Eurotium species are fungi which are the sexual state of Aspergillus species. They are commonly found in soil, decaying plant debris, compost, and stored grains. Many members of this group are allergenic and can produce mycotoxins.

Eurotium spp.

Eurotium species are fungi which are the sexual state of Aspergillus species. They are commonly found in soil, decaying plant debris, compost, and stored grains. Many members of this group are allergenic and can produce mycotoxins.

Eutypella spp.

Eutypella species are a type of fungus that cause disease in maple trees. No human infections have been reported.

Exophiala dermatitidis

Exophiala species are black yeast-like fungi with a worldwide distribution, isolated from decaying wood, soil, and surfaces in contact with cool, fresh water. Human infections are uncommon and associated toxicity and allergenicity have not been reported.

Exophiala jeanselmei

Exophiala species are black yeast-like fungi with a worldwide distribution, isolated from decaying wood, soil, and surfaces in contact with cool, fresh water. Human infections are uncommon and associated toxicity and allergenicity have not been reported.

Exophiala spp.

Exophiala species are black yeast-like fungi with a worldwide distribution, isolated from decaying wood, soil, and surfaces in contact with cool, fresh water. Human infections are uncommon and associated toxicity and allergenicity have not been reported.


Fusarium dimerum

Fusarium species are fungi with widespread distribution in the soil and on plants, with many species serving as important plant pathogens. Some species can produce a variety of toxins in stored grains and animal feed. They are occasionally found indoors under very wet conditions. Fusarium is a common human pathogen, causing systemic infections in immunocompromised patients.

Fusarium graminearum

Fusarium species are fungi with widespread distribution in the soil and on plants, with many species serving as important plant pathogens. Some species can produce a variety of toxins in stored grains and animal feed. They are occasionally found indoors under very wet conditions. Fusarium is a common human pathogen, causing systemic infections in immunocompromised patients.

Fusarium nygamai

Fusarium species are fungi with widespread distribution in the soil and on plants, with many species serving as important plant pathogens. Some species can produce a variety of toxins in stored grains and animal feed. They are occasionally found indoors under very wet conditions. Fusarium is a common human pathogen, causing systemic infections in immunocompromised patients.

Fusarium oxysporum

Fusarium species are fungi with widespread distribution in the soil and on plants, with many species serving as important plant pathogens. Some species can produce a variety of toxins in stored grains and animal feed. They are occasionally found indoors under very wet conditions. Fusarium is a common human pathogen, causing systemic infections in immunocompromised patients.

Fusarium proliferatum

Fusarium species are fungi with widespread distribution in the soil and on plants, with many species serving as important plant pathogens. Some species can produce a variety of toxins in stored grains and animal feed. They are occasionally found indoors under very wet conditions. Fusarium is a common human pathogen, causing systemic infections in immunocompromised patients.

Fusarium scirpi

Fusarium species are fungi with widespread distribution in the soil and on plants, with many species serving as important plant pathogens. Some species can produce a variety of toxins in stored grains and animal feed. They are occasionally found indoors under very wet conditions. Fusarium is a common human pathogen, causing systemic infections in immunocompromised patients.

Fusarium solani

Fusarium species are fungi with widespread distribution in the soil and on plants, with many species serving as important plant pathogens. Some species can produce a variety of toxins in stored grains and animal feed. They are occasionally found indoors under very wet conditions. Fusarium is a common human pathogen, causing systemic infections in immunocompromised patients.

Fusarium spp.

Fusarium species are fungi with widespread distribution in the soil and on plants, with many species serving as important plant pathogens. Some species can produce a variety of toxins in stored grains and animal feed. They are occasionally found indoors under very wet conditions. Fusarium is a common human pathogen, causing systemic infections in immunocompromised patients.

Fusarium verticillioides

Fusarium species are fungi with widespread distribution in the soil and on plants, with many species serving as important plant pathogens. Some species can produce a variety of toxins in stored grains and animal feed. They are occasionally found indoors under very wet conditions. Fusarium is a common human pathogen, causing systemic infections in immunocompromised patients.

Fusicolla spp.

Fusicolla species are a type of ascomycete fungi that form slimy masses on trees. No known human infections have been reported.


Geotrichum candidum

Geotrichum species are ubiquitous fungi with worldwide distribution, occurring in soil, air, water, sewage, various plants, cereals, dairy products, and fruits. This organism can be a part of the normal flora of the human upper respiratory tract. G. candidum is the most common species associated with infection, typically of the oral cavity and respiratory tract.

Geotrichum capitatum

Geotrichum species are ubiquitous fungi with worldwide distribution, occurring in soil, air, water, sewage, various plants, cereals, dairy products, and fruits. This organism can be a part of the normal flora of the human upper respiratory tract. G. candidum is the most common species associated with infection, typically of the oral cavity and respiratory tract.

Geotrichum clavatum

Geotrichum species are ubiquitous fungi with worldwide distribution, occurring in soil, air, water, sewage, various plants, cereals, dairy products, and fruits. This organism can be a part of the normal flora of the human upper respiratory tract. G. candidum is the most common species associated with infection, typically of the oral cavity and respiratory tract.

Geotrichum fermentans

Geotrichum species are ubiquitous fungi with worldwide distribution, occurring in soil, air, water, sewage, various plants, cereals, dairy products, and fruits. This organism can be a part of the normal flora of the human upper respiratory tract. G. candidum is the most common species associated with infection, typically of the oral cavity and respiratory tract.

Geotrichum klebahnii

Geotrichum species are ubiquitous fungi with worldwide distribution, occurring in soil, air, water, sewage, various plants, cereals, dairy products, and fruits. This organism can be a part of the normal flora of the human upper respiratory tract. G. candidum is the most common species associated with infection, typically of the oral cavity and respiratory tract.

Geotrichum spp.

Geotrichum species are ubiquitous fungi with worldwide distribution, occurring in soil, air, water, sewage, various plants, cereals, dairy products, and fruits. This organism can be a part of the normal flora of the human upper respiratory tract. G. candidum is the most common species associated with infection, typically of the oral cavity and respiratory tract.

Gliocladium spp.

Gliocladium species are fungi with widespread distribution in decaying vegetation and soil. This organism can resemble Penicillium but is found infrequently in air samples. It has not been documented as an etiologic agent of disease.


Hormographiella spp.

Hormographiella species are cosmopolitan fungi that can be recovered from compost, sewage, air, and human skin. Species of this fungus are the asexual stage of ink-cap mushrooms. This mold has been isolated from skin lesions and several respiratory infections.

Hormonema dematioides

Hormonema dematioides is a black yeast-like fungus recognized as an opportunistic pathogen of conifers and possibly other plants. It is often found indoors in moist environments. This fungus has been reported as a rare cause of cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis and fungal peritonitis.

Humicola spp.

Humicola species are fungi which are widespread in neutral and alkaline soils. They are rare agents of human infection, with only a few reports of peritonitis.

Hyalodendron spp.

Hyalodendron species are fungi which can be saprophytic or parasitic, mostly on woody plant material. They can resemble Cladosporium conidia in spore trap air samples. They are not known to cause disease in humans.


Irpex spp.

Irpex species are a type of basidiomycete fungi that produce fruiting bodies that grow as a crust on the surface of dead hardwoods. No known human infections have been reported.


Kodamaea ohmeri

Kodamaea ohmeri is a yeast-like fungus widely used in the food industry for fermentation of fruits, pickles, and rinds. It was formerly considered a contaminant when found in clinical specimens, but is now known to be a significant pathogen in immunocompromised patients.


Lecythophora spp.

Lecythophora species are yeast-like fungi that have widespread distribution in decaying vegetation and soil. They are associated with moist environments and have been isolated from rotten wood and foodstuffs. Some species have caused diseases in humans.

Leptosphaeria spp.

Leptosphaeria species are dematiaceous (darkly pigmented) fungi frequently found in soil and as plant pathogens. They are an occasional cause of human disease (mycetoma).

Leptosphaerulina spp.

Leptosphaerulina species are fungi that are commonly found in soil and on grass and leaves. It commonly colonizes and causes disease of turf grass. No human infections have been reported.

Lichtheimia corymbifera

Absidia species (aka Myocladus, Lichtheimia) are fungi belonging to the class Zygomycetes which form long ribbon-like hyphae with few septations. Zygomycetes, which also include Rhizopus, Mucor, and Rhizomucor, have a wide geographic distribution. They are thermotolerant and can use a variety of substrates as nutrient sources. They can be isolated in large numbers from soil or decomposing organic material. They have also been found in carpet and mattress dust, hay, flour, and potted plants. Their spores can often be found in the outdoor air. Infections are rare in healthy individuals unless trauma provides a portal of entry.


Microsphaeropsis spp.

Microsphaeropsis species are a type of coelomycete fungi which are plant pathogens. Infrequent infections have been reported in humans.

Monascus spp.

Monascus species are yeasts that have been used in foods and medicines for more than 1000 years. No human infections have been reported.

Mucor spp.

Mucor species are fungi belonging to the class Zygomycetes which form long ribbon-like hyphae with few septations. Zygomycetes, which also include Absidia, Rhizopus, and Rhizomucor, have a wide geographic distribution. They are thermotolerant and can use a variety of substrates as nutrient sources. They can be isolated in large numbers from soil or decomposing organic material. They have also been found in carpet and mattress dust, hay, flour, and potted plants. Their spores can often be found in the outdoor air. Infections are rare in healthy individuals unless trauma provides a portal of entry.

Myrothecium cinctum

Myrothecium species are cosmopolitan fungi inhabiting forest soils, grasslands, and cultivated soils. They can be a parasitic on plants causing leaf spots. No known human infections have been reported.

Myrothecium spp.

Myrothecium species are cosmopolitan fungi inhabiting forest soils, grasslands, and cultivated soils. It can be a parasitic on plants causing leaf spots. Human infection has not been reported.


Neosetophoma spp.

Neosetophoma species are a type of fungus found in soil and on dead and living plant material. No known human infections have been reported.

Nigrospora spp.

Nigrospora species are fungi with a widespread distribution in decaying plant material, soil, and air. Human infections is very rare.

Nodulisporium spp.

Nodulisporium species are fungi with a worldwide distribution on decaying woody vegetation. Human infection has not been reported.

Non-sporulating dematiaceous fungi

Non-sporulating fungi - under usual laboratory conditions, some fungi do not readily produce spores (conidia) and cannot be identified microscopically. These fungi are generally called non-sporulating hyaline (clear or transparent) fungi or non-sporulating dematiaceous (dark or pigmented) fungi. Often these unidentified fungi fall into the division of Basidiomycota which include the rusts, smuts, mushrooms, and shelf fungi.

Non-sporulating dematiaceous fungus

Non-sporulating fungi - under usual laboratory conditions, some fungi do not readily produce spores (conidia) and cannot be identified microscopically. These fungi are generally called non-sporulating hyaline (clear or transparent) fungi or non-sporulating dematiaceous (dark or pigmented) fungi. Often these unidentified fungi fall into the division of Basidiomycota which include the rusts, smuts, mushrooms, and shelf fungi.

Non-sporulating hyaline fungi

Non-sporulating fungi - under usual laboratory conditions, some fungi do not readily produce spores (conidia) and cannot be identified microscopically. These fungi are generally called non-sporulating hyaline (clear or transparent) fungi or non-sporulating dematiaceous (dark or pigmented) fungi. Often these unidentified fungi fall into the division of Basidiomycota which include the rusts, smuts, mushrooms, and shelf fungi.

Non-sporulating hyaline fungus

Non-sporulating fungi - under usual laboratory conditions, some fungi do not readily produce spores (conidia) and cannot be identified microscopically. These fungi are generally called non-sporulating hyaline (clear or transparent) fungi or non-sporulating dematiaceous (dark or pigmented) fungi. Often these unidentified fungi fall into the division of Basidiomycota which include the rusts, smuts, mushrooms, and shelf fungi.


Ochroconis spp.

Ochroconis species are fungi with a widespread distribution in thermal environments such as warm soils, compost, and decaying vegetation. Some species can be pathogenic to both animals and humans.

Oudemansiella canarii

Oudemansiella species are basidiomycete fungi which grow as mushrooms on rotting wood. No known human infections have been reported.


Paecilomyces lilacinus

Paecilomyces species are fungi isolated worldwide from soil and decaying plant material and are often implicated in decay of food products and cosmetics. Some species are able to tolerate high temperatures and are inhabitants of compost piles. Paecilomyces spp. is a common contaminant in air. Human infection is rare but some species like P. variotii are able to produce significant mycotoxins such as patulin and viriditoxin.

Paecilomyces spp.

Paecilomyces species are fungi isolated worldwide from soil and decaying plant material and are often implicated in decay of food products and cosmetics. Some species are able to tolerate high temperatures and are inhabitants of compost piles. Paecilomyces spp. is a common contaminant in air. Human infection is rare but some species like P. variotii are able to produce significant mycotoxins such as patulin and viriditoxin.

Paecilomyces variotii

Paecilomyces species are fungi isolated worldwide from soil and decaying plant material and are often implicated in decay of food products and cosmetics. Some species are able to tolerate high temperatures and are inhabitants of compost piles. Paecilomyces spp. is a common contaminant in air. Human infection is rare but some species like P. variotii are able to produce significant mycotoxins such as patulin and viriditoxin.

Penicillium brevicompactum

Penicillium species are fungi with worldwide distribution over a broad range of climates in soil, decaying vegetation, and foods. They are the most abundant genus of mesophilic fungi in temperate soils. About 200 species have been identified. They are indoor contaminants commonly found in carpet, wallpaper, and inside fiberglass duct insulation. High viable or spore trap air counts may be detected where water damaged materials such as drywall, wallpaper, wood, and wood products are present. Human infection with species other than P. marneffei are very rare.

Penicillium camemberti

Penicillium species are fungi with worldwide distribution over a broad range of climates in soil, decaying vegetation, and foods. They are the most abundant genus of mesophilic fungi in temperate soils. About 200 species have been identified. They are indoor contaminants commonly found in carpet, wallpaper, and inside fiberglass duct insulation. High viable or spore trap air counts may be detected where water damaged materials such as drywall, wallpaper, wood, and wood products are present. Human infection with species other than P. marneffei are very rare.

Penicillium chrysogenum

Penicillium species are fungi with worldwide distribution over a broad range of climates in soil, decaying vegetation, and foods. They are the most abundant genus of mesophilic fungi in temperate soils. About 200 species have been identified. They are indoor contaminants commonly found in carpet, wallpaper, and inside fiberglass duct insulation. High viable or spore trap air counts may be detected where water damaged materials such as drywall, wallpaper, wood, and wood products are present. Human infection with species other than P. marneffei are very rare.

Penicillium expansum

Penicillium species are fungi with worldwide distribution over a broad range of climates in soil, decaying vegetation, and foods. They are the most abundant genus of mesophilic fungi in temperate soils. About 200 species have been identified. They are indoor contaminants commonly found in carpet, wallpaper, and inside fiberglass duct insulation. High viable or spore trap air counts may be detected where water damaged materials such as drywall, wallpaper, wood, and wood products are present. Human infection with species other than P. marneffei are very rare.

Penicillium griseofulvum

Penicillium species are fungi with worldwide distribution over a broad range of climates in soil, decaying vegetation, and foods. They are the most abundant genus of mesophilic fungi in temperate soils. About 200 species have been identified. They are indoor contaminants commonly found in carpet, wallpaper, and inside fiberglass duct insulation. High viable or spore trap air counts may be detected where water damaged materials such as drywall, wallpaper, wood, and wood products are present. Human infection with species other than P. marneffei are very rare.

Penicillium italicum

Penicillium species are fungi with worldwide distribution over a broad range of climates in soil, decaying vegetation, and foods. They are the most abundant genus of mesophilic fungi in temperate soils. About 200 species have been identified. They are indoor contaminants commonly found in carpet, wallpaper, and inside fiberglass duct insulation. High viable or spore trap air counts may be detected where water damaged materials such as drywall, wallpaper, wood, and wood products are present. Human infection with species other than P. marneffei are very rare.

Penicillium purpurogenum

Penicillium species are fungi with worldwide distribution over a broad range of climates in soil, decaying vegetation, and foods. They are the most abundant genus of mesophilic fungi in temperate soils. About 200 species have been identified. They are indoor contaminants commonly found in carpet, wallpaper, and inside fiberglass duct insulation. High viable or spore trap air counts may be detected where water damaged materials such as drywall, wallpaper, wood, and wood products are present. Human infection with species other than P. marneffei are very rare.

Penicillium rugulosum

Penicillium species are fungi with worldwide distribution over a broad range of climates in soil, decaying vegetation, and foods. They are the most abundant genus of mesophilic fungi in temperate soils. About 200 species have been identified. They are indoor contaminants commonly found in carpet, wallpaper, and inside fiberglass duct insulation. High viable or spore trap air counts may be detected where water damaged materials such as drywall, wallpaper, wood, and wood products are present. Human infection with species other than P. marneffei are very rare.

Penicillium spp.

Penicillium species are fungi with worldwide distribution over a broad range of climates in soil, decaying vegetation, and foods. They are the most abundant genus of mesophilic fungi in temperate soils. About 200 species have been identified. They are indoor contaminants commonly found in carpet, wallpaper, and inside fiberglass duct insulation. High viable or spore trap air counts may be detected where water damaged materials such as drywall, wallpaper, wood, and wood products are present. Human infection with species other than P. marneffei are very rare.

Peniophora cinerea

Peniophora cinerea is a species of crust-like fungus that is pathogenic to plants. No known human infections have been reported.

Pestaloptiopsis spp.

Pestaloptiopsis species are fungi that are widely distributed in the environment. They are common plant pathogens causing leaf blight and fruit rot. No human infections have been reported.

Peziza spp.

Peziza species are fungi commonly known as cup fungi. They produce a visible, rubbery cup structure on soil and rotting wood. They can also be found indoors in damp locations. No human infections have been reported.

Phaeosphaeria microscopica

Phaeosphaeria species are a type of ascomycete fungi that are pathogenic to plants. No known human infections have been reported.

Phanerochaete spp.

Phanerochaete species are type of wood rotting fungus which can degrade lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose contained in wood and other hard-to-biodegrade organic substances. No human infections have been reported.

Phialophora europaea

Phialophora species are dematiaceous (pigmented) fungi found in decaying wood, wood pulp, and soil. They can occur as plant pathogens and are associated with very wet conditions. P. verrucosa is the second most common cause of chromoblastomycosis worldwide and the most common cause in North America.

Phialophora spp.

Phialophora species are dematiaceous (pigmented) fungi found in decaying wood, wood pulp, and soil. They can occur as plant pathogens and are associated with very wet conditions. P. verrucosa is the second most common cause of chromoblastomycosis worldwide and the most common cause in North America.

Phoma exigua

Phoma species are fungi with worldwide distribution; commonly found in the soil and also occurring as plant pathogens (particularly in potatoes). Some species of Phoma may produce pink or purple spots on painted walls due to their pigment production. Phoma species have been reported predominantly in cutaneous infections, but infection is rare. This mold is reported to be allergenic in susceptible individuals.

Phoma glomerata

Phoma species are fungi with worldwide distribution; commonly found in the soil and also occurring as plant pathogens (particularly in potatoes). Some species of Phoma may produce pink or purple spots on painted walls due to their pigment production. Phoma species have been reported predominantly in cutaneous infections, but infection is rare. This mold is reported to be allergenic in susceptible individuals.

Phoma spp.

Phoma species are fungi with worldwide distribution; commonly found in the soil and also occurring as plant pathogens (particularly in potatoes). Some species of Phoma may produce pink or purple spots on painted walls due to their pigment production. Phoma species have been reported predominantly in cutaneous infections, but infection is rare. This mold is reported to be allergenic in susceptible individuals.

Pithomyces spp.

Pithomyces species are cosmopolitan fungi found in decaying wood, plant material, and soil. Human infection is very rare with one case report of cutaneous infection in an immunocompromised patient. Some species of Pithomyces may produce potent mycotoxins.

Plectosporium spp.

Plectosporium species are fungi found in soil and on plants. They are well-known plant pathogens which can infect crops such as cucurbits (squash family), peanuts, snap beans, and soy beans. No human infections have been reported.

Pleosporales

Pleosporales are a group of fungi. The majority of species in this group are saprobes on decaying plant material in fresh water, marine, and terrestrial environments. No human infections have been reported.

Pseudallescheria boydii

Pseudallescheria boydii is a fungus found in soil and stagnant and polluted waters. It is an opportunistic pathogen of humans.


Ramichloridium spp.

Ramichloridium species are dematiaceous (pigmented) fungi widespread in decaying vegetation and in soil. Some species may grow as mycelial mats on cellar walls, particularly in wine cellars. Human infection is not common and can range from subcutaneous to fatal central nervous system infections.

Rhizomucor pusillus

Rhizomucor species are fungi belonging to the class Zygomycetes which form long ribbon-like hyphae with few septations. Zygomycetes, which also include Absidia, Mucor, and Rhizopus, have a wide geographic distribution. They are thermotolerant and can use a variety of substrates as nutrient sources. They can be isolated in large numbers from soil or decomposing organic material. They have also been found in carpet and mattress dust, hay, flour, and potted plants. Their spores can often be found in the outdoor air. Infections are rare in healthy individuals unless trauma provides a portal of entry.

Rhizopus microsporus

Rhizopus species are fungi belonging to the class Zygomycetes which form long ribbon-like hyphae with few septations. Zygomycetes, which also include Absidia, Mucor, and Rhizomucor, have a wide geographic distribution. They are thermotolerant and can use a variety of substrates as nutrient sources. They can be isolated in large numbers from soil or decomposing organic material. They have also been found in carpet and mattress dust, hay, flour, and potted plants. Their spores can often be found in the outdoor air. Infections are rare in healthy individuals unless trauma provides a portal of entry.

Rhizopus spp.

Rhizopus species are fungi belonging to the class Zygomycetes which form long ribbon-like hyphae with few septations. Zygomycetes, which also include Absidia, Mucor, and Rhizomucor, have a wide geographic distribution. They are thermotolerant and can use a variety of substrates as nutrient sources. They can be isolated in large numbers from soil or decomposing organic material. They have also been found in carpet and mattress dust, hay, flour, and potted plants. Their spores can often be found in the outdoor air. Infections are rare in healthy individuals unless trauma provides a portal of entry.

Rhodosporidium spp.

Rhodosporidium species are a type of red-pigmented yeast found in ground water and deep-sea environments. No human infections have been reported.

Rhodotorula glutinis

Rhodotorula species are a genus of yeast-like fungi that produces carotenoid pigments ranging from a yellowish to red. They have been isolated from a variety of environmental sources, including soil, air, water, cooling coils, drain pans, plants, dairy products, fruit juices, shower curtains, and toothbrushes. Confirmed cases of human infection are rare but the yeast has been reported to be allergenic.

Rhodotorula minuta

Rhodotorula species are a genus of yeast-like fungi that produces carotenoid pigments ranging from a yellowish to red. They have been isolated from a variety of environmental sources, including soil, air, water, cooling coils, drain pans, plants, dairy products, fruit juices, shower curtains, and toothbrushes. Confirmed cases of human infection are rare but the yeast has been reported to be allergenic.

Rhodotorula mucilaginosa

Rhodotorula species are a genus of yeast-like fungi that produces carotenoid pigments ranging from a yellowish to red. They have been isolated from a variety of environmental sources, including soil, air, water, cooling coils, drain pans, plants, dairy products, fruit juices, shower curtains, and toothbrushes. Confirmed cases of human infection are rare but the yeast has been reported to be allergenic.

Rhodotorula spp.

Rhodotorula species are a genus of yeast-like fungi that produces carotenoid pigments ranging from a yellowish to red. They have been isolated from a variety of environmental sources, including soil, air, water, cooling coils, drain pans, plants, dairy products, fruit juices, shower curtains, and toothbrushes. Confirmed cases of human infection are rare but the yeast has been reported to be allergenic.


Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Saccharomyces species are yeast-like fungi found on man and other mammals, wine, beer, fruits and berries, trees, olives, and soil. The organism has been implicated in disseminated disease in the immunocompromised host.

Saccharomyces kluyverii

Saccharomyces species are yeast-like fungi found on man and other mammals, wine, beer, fruits and berries, trees, olives, and soil. The organism has been implicated in disseminated disease in the immunocompromised host.

Saccharomyces pastorianus

Saccharomyces species are yeast-like fungi found on man and other mammals, wine, beer, fruits and berries, trees, olives, and soil. The organism has been implicated in disseminated disease in the immunocompromised host.

Scedosporium apiospermum

Scedosporium species are fungi with worldwide distribution isolated from rural soils, sewage and contaminated water, and from the manure of farm animals. They can cause localized and disseminated infections in humans, with Scedosporium apiospermum being the most common species involved.

Scedosporium prolificans

Scedosporium species are fungi with worldwide distribution isolated from rural soils, sewage and contaminated water, and from the manure of farm animals. They can cause localized and disseminated infections in humans, with Scedosporium apiospermum being the most common species involved.

Scedosporium spp.

Scedosporium species are fungi with worldwide distribution isolated from rural soils, sewage and contaminated water, and from the manure of farm animals. They can cause localized and disseminated infections in humans, with Scedosporium apiospermum being the most common species involved.

Schizophyllum commune

Schizophyllum commune is a basidiomycetous fungus ubiquitous in the environment as a plant pathogen, attacking a wide range of host trees. This shelf fungus is a common invader of rotten wood. Human infections are rare.

Scopulariopsis brevicaulis

Scopulariopsis species are fungi with worldwide distribution in soils, plants, feathers, and insects. The most common species, S. brevicaulis, can be found indoors on damp walls and building materials. These organisms rarely cause human infection, but cases of onychomycosis (nail), skin lesions, and opportunistic invasive disease in the immunocompromised hosts have been reported.

Scopulariopsis spp.

Scopulariopsis species are fungi with worldwide distribution in soils, plants, feathers, and insects. The most common species, S. brevicaulis, can be found indoors on damp walls and building materials. These organisms rarely cause human infection, but cases of onychomycosis (nail), skin lesions, and opportunistic invasive disease in the immunocompromised hosts have been reported.

Sepedonium spp.

Sepedonium species are cosmopolitan fungi found in soil as saprobes and as parasites of mushrooms. Human infections have not bee reported.

Sphaerobolus stellatus

Sphaerobolus stellatus, also known as the artillery fungus, produces tiny dark spots on houses (siding), cars, and plants. The spots are actually sticky spore packages that are discharged forcefully from the fungus growing on moist wood, particularly landscape mulch. Sphaerobolus belongs to the Basidiomycetes which include the mushrooms, smuts, rusts, puffballs, and bracket fungi.

Sporidiobolus spp.

Sporidiobolus species are basidiomycetous yeasts characterized by carotenoid pigments ranging from pink to red or orange. They may be recovered from soil, air, leaves, bark, grasses, and fruit and are associated with very wet conditions. Sporobolomyces is an infrequent agent of human infection but is recognized as a cause of allergies and hypersensitivity pneumonitis.

Sporobolomyces spp.

Sporobolomyces species are a type of yeast commonly isolated from environmental sources, such as air, tree leaves, and orange peels. Sporobolomyces may cause infections, particularly in immunosuppressed patients.

Sporothrix spp.

Sporothrix species are fungi with a global distribution, found primarily in temperate zones of North America, South America, and Japan. It occurs in soil, damp wood, hay, sphagnum moss, and on plants. Human infection (sporotrichosis) occurs primarily from traumatic implantation into the skin by thorns or splinters. Outbreaks have been associated with contaminated plant material such as straw, wood, hay bales, and sphagnum moss.

Sporotrichum spp.

Sporotrichum species are basidomycetous fungi with a widespread distribution, occurring in decaying wood and in the soil. Human infection has not been reported but there have been a rare cases of isolation from the human respiratory tract.

Stachybotrys spp.

Stachybotrys species are cosmopolitan, saprophytic fungi with worldwide distribution and can be found on paper, seed, in soil, textiles, decaying plant material, and other cellulose-rich materials. Major indoor habitats include water-damaged wallpapers and jute carpet backing, carpet glues, ceiling tile, water-soaked wood, wall paneling, gypsum board, moist debris in ducts, and damp paper and books. Stachybotrys species will not grow on vinyl, plastic, concrete, or ceramic tiles. They may be readily found in most buildings that have experienced chronic water problems that are left unattended. The spores of Stachybotrys are not readily airborne, therefore, bulk or swab sampling can be important for detecting the fungus indoors. No human infections have been reported but cases of toxicosis have been described.

Stereum complicatum

Stereum species are a common fungus which grow as shelf-like structures (brackets) on dead, rotting wood. No known human infections have been reported.

Syncephalastrum racemosum

Syncephalastrum species are fungi that are commonly isolated from animal dung and soil in tropical and subtropical countries. These fungi are very rarely associated with human disease but have been reported in cutaneous infections.

Syncephalastrum spp.

Syncephalastrum species are fungi that are commonly isolated from animal dung and soil in tropical and subtropical countries. These fungi are very rarely associated with human disease but have been reported in cutaneous infections.

Sistotrema spp.

Sistotrema species is a type of basidiomycete fungus commonly found on rotting wood. No known human infections have been reported.


Talaromyces spp.

Taloromyces species are a type of fungus found in soil. Some species may cause infections in immunocompromised individuals.

Tilletiopsis spp.

Tilletiopsis species are a type of fungus used in biocontrol of powdery mildew. No human infections have been reported.

Trametes spp.

Trametes species are a type basidiomycete fungus which grow as shelf-like structures (brackets) on standing and fallen timber. No human infections have been reported.

Trichoderma atroviride

Trichoderma species are fungi with a widespread distribution, commonly found in soil, wood, fallen timbers, decaying vegetation, pine needles, and paper. They are known to readily degrade cellulose. Indoors, the mold may be isolated on paper, tapestry, unglazed ceramic surfaces, house dust, and stored grains. These species are considered emerging pathogens in immunocompromised persons. They are recognized as common causes of allergies and hypersensitivity pneumonitis and are known to produce potent mycotoxins.

Trichoderma brevicompactum

Trichoderma species are fungi with a widespread distribution, commonly found in soil, wood, fallen timbers, decaying vegetation, pine needles, and paper. They are known to readily degrade cellulose. Indoors, the mold may be isolated on paper, tapestry, unglazed ceramic surfaces, house dust, and stored grains. These species are considered emerging pathogens in immunocompromised persons. They are recognized as common causes of allergies and hypersensitivity pneumonitis and are known to produce potent mycotoxins.

Trichoderma spp.

Trichoderma species are fungi with a widespread distribution, commonly found in soil, wood, fallen timbers, decaying vegetation, pine needles, and paper. They are known to readily degrade cellulose. Indoors, the mold may be isolated on paper, tapestry, unglazed ceramic surfaces, house dust, and stored grains. These species are considered emerging pathogens in immunocompromised persons. They are recognized as common causes of allergies and hypersensitivity pneumonitis and are known to produce potent mycotoxins.

Trichosporon asahii

Trichosporon species are yeast-like fungi that may be isolated from soil, water, vegetables, mammals, and birds. They can also be isolated in the mouth and on the skin and nails of humans. They are generally associated with water intrusion in the indoor environment. Localized and disseminated human infections have been reported.

Trichosporon asteroides

Trichosporon species are yeast-like fungi that may be isolated from soil, water, vegetables, mammals, and birds. They can also be isolated in the mouth and on the skin and nails of humans. They are generally associated with water intrusion in the indoor environment. Localized and disseminated human infections have been reported.

Trichosporon cutaneum

Trichosporon species are yeast-like fungi that may be isolated from soil, water, vegetables, mammals, and birds. They can also be isolated in the mouth and on the skin and nails of humans. They are generally associated with water intrusion in the indoor environment. Localized and disseminated human infections have been reported.

Trichosporon dermatis/mucoides

Trichosporon species are yeast-like fungi that may be isolated from soil, water, vegetables, mammals, and birds. They can also be isolated in the mouth and on the skin and nails of humans. They are generally associated with water intrusion in the indoor environment. Localized and disseminated human infections have been reported.

Trichosporon inkin

Trichosporon species are yeast-like fungi that may be isolated from soil, water, vegetables, mammals, and birds. They can also be isolated in the mouth and on the skin and nails of humans. They are generally associated with water intrusion in the indoor environment. Localized and disseminated human infections have been reported.

Trichosporon mucoides

Trichosporon species are yeast-like fungi that may be isolated from soil, water, vegetables, mammals, and birds. They can also be isolated in the mouth and on the skin and nails of humans. They are generally associated with water intrusion in the indoor environment. Localized and disseminated human infections have been reported.

Trichosporon ovoides

Trichosporon species are yeast-like fungi that may be isolated from soil, water, vegetables, mammals, and birds. They can also be isolated in the mouth and on the skin and nails of humans. They are generally associated with water intrusion in the indoor environment. Localized and disseminated human infections have been reported.

Trichosporon spp.

Trichosporon species are yeast-like fungi that may be isolated from soil, water, vegetables, mammals, and birds. They can also be isolated in the mouth and on the skin and nails of humans. They are generally associated with water intrusion in the indoor environment. Localized and disseminated human infections have been reported.

Tritirachium spp.

Tritirachium species are fungi that are widespread in decaying vegetation and in the soil. They are insect pathogens. Human infections are rare.


Ulocladium spp.

Ulocladium species are cosmopolitan dematiaceous (darkly pigmented) fungi commonly found in the soil and on decaying herbaceous plants, paper, textiles, and wood. Although Ulocladium species are common contaminants, their presence indoors may indicate moisture intrusion as they grow optimally in high substrates with high water content. They rarely cause human infection but are recognized as a common cause of allergies.

Unidentifiable dematiaceous or hyaline conidia

Unidentified dematiaceous or hyaline conidia - when unidentified dematiaceous or hyaline conidia are noted on a direct microscopic examination, it indicates that no particular mold can be identified. Only the fungal conidia are present with no or little additional characteristics to fully identify and categorize them. These conidia may represent such yeast-like fungi as Aureobasidium, Hormonema, Sporidiobolus, unidentifiable Acremonium species, basidiomycetes (basidiospores), and Ascomycetes (ascospores).

Ustilago spp.

Ustilago are yeast-like fungi known as smuts which are major plant pathogens. No human infections have been reported but these organisms are a known cause of allergies.


Verticillium spp.

Verticillium species are fungi which are widely distributed on decaying vegetation and in soil. Some species are parasitic on other fungi, arthropods, and plants. Verticillium rarely causes disease in humans.

Volutella spp.

Volutella species are a type of fungus which cause a common leaf blight on plants. No known human infections have been reported.


Xylaria heliscus

Xylaria species are fungi that grow as finger-like or antler-like projections on dead, rotting wood. No known human infections have been reported.


Zasmidium aporosae

Zasmidium species are a type of ascomycete fungi that can be found on plants. No known human infections have been reported.


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